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Text © K. Reißmann, T. Hörren, M. Stern, F. Bötzl and C. Benisch

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Osphya bipunctata (F., 1775)
Osphya bipunctata
The 5 to 11 mm large false darkling beetle Osphya bipunctata (family Melandryidae) is currently the only representative of the genus in Germany, although its sister species, O. aeneipennis does occur in the Alps and might appear in South Germany. Worldwide, the genus comprises approx. 25 species. Osphya bipunctata occurs from South England over Central and Southeast Europe to the Caspian Sea. The stenotopic, thermophilous species lives in sparse deciduous forests (often floodplain forests) and at the sun-exposed edges of forests. The adults can be found on blossoming bushes, e.g. hawthorn (Crataegus), dogwood (Cornus) and Viburnum. Some males (but not all) exhibit thickened and spiked rear femora. Osphya bipunctata is recorded from most regions in Germany, but it is regarded as endangered (RL 2). (CB)

Aphodius quadrimaculatus (L., 1761)
Aphodius quadrimaculatus
The 3 to 4 mm large pasture cockchafer Aphodius quadrimaculatus (family Scarabaeidae) is one on numerous representatives of the genus. Worldwide the genus comprises more than 1000 species, in Europe approx. 130, thereof around 60 are currently recorded from Germany. The genus is undergoing taxonomic revision and is split up in several genera at the moment. Aphodius quadrimaculatus occurs from Western, Central and Southern Europe to Asia minor and the Caucasus. The stenotopic, thermophilous species lives on warm and dry slopes and appears from March to June. They can be found on sheep dung, rarely on cow dung and occasionally in the burrows of rodents and foxes. After mating the females deposit their eggs directly in the dung. The larvae feed of the dung. In Germany, the species is missing in the North and the East. It is not endangered. (CB)

Trichoferus pallidus (Ol., 1790)
Trichoferus pallidus
The 14 to 21 mm large longhorn beetle Trichoferus pallidus (family Cerambycidae) is the only representative of the genus in our fauna. The thermophilous species is known to occur from Western over Central Europa to the Crimea and the Northern Caucasus. The nocturnal species can be found in old oak forests on old oaks with partially dead treetop and in the process of dying. Trichoferus pallidus is very demanding concerning its habitat. Occurrences are limited to forests which have never been devastated since the end of the last glacial period 12,500 years ago. Its larvae develop under the bark of trunks and thick branches of oak, very rarely of beech or lime. Recent records in Germany are only known from Baden, the Palatinate and Hesse. Trichoferus pallidus is regarded as critically endangered (RL 1). (CB)

Chrysomela vigintipunctata Scop., 1763
Chrysomela vigintipunctata
The 6.5 to 8.5 mm large spotted willow leaf beetle Chrysomela vigintipunctata (family Chrysomelidae) is one of seven representatives of the otherwise holarctic genus in Germany. The distribution of Chrysomela vigintipunctata ranges from Eastern France to Japan. The stenotopic, ripicolous beetles can be found from April to August in forests near waterbodies on willow, less often on birch and alder. Both the beetles and their larvae feed on the leaves of their host plants. The larvae skeletonize leaves, especially at the edges and have a tendency to aggregate. They can cause economic damage in tree nurseries when willows and alder are attacked there. The species is recorded from almost all regions of Germany and is regarded as not endangered. (CB)

Coeliodes trifasciatus Bach, 1854
Coeliodes trifasciatus
The palearctic genus Coeliodes (family Curculionidae) comprises around 30 species, which all develop in oak, contrary to the representatives of the closely related genus Coeliodinus, which lives on birch and was regarded as a subgenus of Coeliodes in the past. With their coloration, the adults resemble oak buds, hence they are perfectly camouflaged on the branches still leafless in spring. They deposit their eggs in the buds and the larvae develop in the developing catkin. The new generation appears in early summer and hibernates in leaf litter. Among the five species of the genus in Germany, Coeliodes trifasciatus is the most thermophilous. The southern and central European species lives on common oak, in the south also on downy oak. In our fauna, it is limited to south-facing, dry oak coppice and edges of forests. Coeliodes trifasciatus is everywhere rather rare, but is still not regarded as endangered. (MS)

Odacantha melanura (L., 1767)
Odacantha melanura
The conspicuous ground beetle Odacantha melanura (family Carabidae) is the only European representative of the genus, which is most speciose in the tropic region. The 6 to 8 mm large species is known to occur throughout Europe to western Siberia. The species is hygrophilous and lives at the edges of waterbodies, swamps and wet meadows with plenty of reed from the planar to the colline zone. They mate in spring. The beetles are predaceous and feed mainly on springtails (Collembola). They hibernate in the stalks of reed, where also the larvae develop. In Germany, Odacantha melanura is currently recorded from the North mainly. Although it is known to occur throughout Germany, it is not too often recorded. In the Red list of endangered species of Germany it is therefore regarded as near threatened. (FB)

Plegaderus dissectus Er., 1839
Plegaderus dissectus
The only 1 to 1.5 mm large clown beetle Plegaderus dissectus (family Histeridae) is one of only five representatives of the genus in Germany. Worldwide, the genus comprises 28 species, thereof 14 in the Nearctic region. The distribution of Plegaderus dissectus ranges from Central and Southern Europe to the Caucasus. The stenotopic, silvicolous and lignicolous species lives in deciduous forests and parks in decaying stumps of deciduous infested with white rot., as well as in tinder fungus on beech and associated with ants, mainly Lasius brunneus and Formica cunicularia. They are thought to be preying on the larvae of bark beetles. Due to their small size they are often overlooked. In Germany, Plegaderus dissectus ist present in almost all Federal States, but is regarded as vulnerable (RL 3). (CB)

Scintillatrix rutilans (F., 1777)
Scintillatrix rutilans
The 9 to 15 mm large jewel beetle Scintillatrix rutilans (family Buprestidae) is one of only three representatives of the genus in Germany. Worldwide the genus comprises approx. 55 species from Europe to Eurasia and Japan. Scintillatrix rutilans is known to occur from Europe to South Russia and avoids the influence of the atlantic climate. It populates sun-exposed, old lime trees, e.g. on south-facing slopes, lime alleys and solitary trees in residential areas. The development takes 2-3 years and takes place under the bark. The adult beetles swarm in warm, sunny weather, but hide quickly when the sky is cloudy and overcast. Especially the males escape swiftly in sunshine. They appear from May to July. In Germany, recent records are only known from the southern half of the country. Scintillatrix rutilans is regarded as endangered (RL 2). (CB)

Clitostethus arcuatus (Rossi, 1794)
Clitostethus arcuatus
The only 1.2 to 1.5 mm large ladybird Clitostethus arcuatus (family Coccinellidae) is thermophilous and in Europe mainly of Mediterranean distribution. In Central Europe it is limited to habitats with favorable warm climate, e.g. the Upper Rhine valley. The beetles live on ivy, deciduous and coniferous trees. They prey on representatives of the whiteflies (Aleyrodidae) native to Europe. For pest control purposes they have been introduced to many countries, e.g. California, Chile and Iran as a biological control agent against ash whitefly, Siphoninus phillyreae, which attacks ash, but also many fruit trees and citrus. In Central Europe the beetles can generate up to three overlapping generations between May and early November. The stenotopic species is regarded as endangered (RL 2) in our fauna. (CB)

Abdera quadrifasciata (Curt., 1829)
Abdera quadrifasciata
The 2.5 to 4 mm large false darkling beetle Abdera quadrifasciata (family Melandryidae) is in Germany one of five representatives, which is otherwise present with several species both in the Palearctic and in the Nearctic. The stenotopic, silvicolous species is known to occur in Western, Eastern and Southern Europe, but only sporadically in Central Europe. The beetles can be found in warm habitats on stems and branches of various deciduous trees infested with fungi, mainly oak (Quercus), beech (Fagus), chestnut (Castanea) and hazel (Corylus). Most of the discoveries are made from branches of oak in the presence of the fungus False Turkey Tail (Stereum hirsutum). In Germany the occurrences are rare and scattered and are centered in the southwest and west of Germany. Abdera quadrifasciata is regarded as vulnerable (RL 3). (CB)

Anisoplia villosa (Goeze, 1777)
Anisoplia villosa
The 10 to 11 mm large leaf chafer Anisoplia villosa (family Scarabaeidae) is one of only two representatives of the genus currently recorded in Germany, which comprises slightly above 50 species in Eurasia. It is most speciose in the southeastern Mediterranean region and in the Caucasus. The center of the distribution of Anisoplia villosa is located in southwest Europe, in Central Europe the species in limited to xerothermic slopes. It ranges from the Iberian Pensinsula over Southern and Central France, southern Europe, Germany, Austria, Switzerland to Poland, The Czech Republic, Slovakia and Romania. The beetles can be found on the spikes of cereals and grasses during the blossom. The diurnal beetles hide in the ground at night. The larvae prefer sandy soil and feed on the roots of various grasses. In Germany, Anisoplia villosa is regarded as endangered (RL 2). (CB)

Chlorophorus varius (Müll., 1766)
Chlorophorus varius
The 8 to 14 mm large longhorn beetle Chlorophorus varius (family Cerambycidae) is one of currently four species of the genus Chlorophorus in Germany. The stenotopic, thermophilous species ranges from Southern, Central and Eastern Europe to Asia, Minor, the Caucasus, North Iran, Transcaucasia and Western Siberia. The beetles live on meadows and at the edges of forests in warm habitats. The adults can be found at warm slopes, in vineyards, on sun-exposed edges of forests and waysides on umbellifers. The larvae develop in a 2-3-year cycle in 2 to 5 cm thick dead or dry branches of various deciduous trees, among them horse chestnut, elm, maple, alder, ash and others. In Germany, recent records are known from the southwest and a few regions in the east. Chlorophorus varius is regarded as critically endangered (RL 1). (CB)

Enedreutes sepicola (F., 1792)
Enedreutes sepicola
The 2.5 to 5 mm large Enedreutes sepicola belongs to the speciose fungus weevils (family Anthribidae), which comprises almost 4000 species worldwide. Their center of gravity is the tropical region. In Europe, only 60 species are known to occur. Enedreutes sepicola is distributed throughout Europe. In Germany, is was the only species of the genus until a recent record of E. hilaris at the North Rhine (Reißmann, i.l.). The stenotopic, thermophilous and silvicolous species can be found from April to September in dry oak forests. The beetle develops in dead, fungi-infested branches of various trees, among them beech, European ash and oak, where the latter is preferred. In Germany the species is recorded from all Federal States and is regarded as not endangered. (CB)

Rhinoncus albicinctus Gyll., 1836
Rhinoncus albicinctus
The 3.1 to 3.8 mm large weevil Rhinoncus albicintus (family Curculionidae) shows a very specialized lifestyle. It develops only in the aquatic form of the longroot smartweed Persicaria amphibia. It can be found in small, stagnant waterbodies and oxbow lakes of larger rivers on the inflorescence of the host plant sticking out of the water. While the land form of the host plant is much more common, and can be found on muddy riverbanks very easily, the weevil is never present on it. The larvae bore in the stem and pupate there. In midsummer, the new generation hatches and hibernates at the water edge under plant detritus, where it can be found much easier, than on the aquatic form of the host plant, which is usually difficult to access. The species occurs from Western and Central Europe to Russia. In Germany, records are quite rare and R. albicintus is regarded as endangered (RL 2). (MS)

Oreina alpestris (Schumm., 1843)
Oreina alpestris
The 7 to 11 mm large leaf beetle Oreina alpestris (family Chrysomelidae) is closely related with the speciose genus Chrysolina. The characteristics for the separation of the two genera are gradual and not fully selective. Most representatives of the genus require dissection for determination of the species. Oreina alpestris prefers forests of the mountain range of Europe, with the exception of Fennoscandia. They live on various plants of the parsley family (Apiaceae), where both beetles and larvae feed on the leaves, among others cow parsley (Anthriscus sylvestris), hairy chervil (Chaerophyllum hirsutum), Alpine Sow-thistle (Cicerbita alpina) and hedge-leaved adenostyle (Adenostyles alliariae). In the western, northern and eastern part of Germany the species is missing in the lowland. It is regarded as not endangered. (CB)

Bembidion tibiale (Duft., 1812)
Bembidion tibiale
The ground beetle Bembidion tibiale (family Carabidae) is a typical dweller of the water edges of shady mountain creeks. The stenotopic, hygrophilous and ripicolous animals are approximately 5.3 to 6.8 mm large and of metallic green color. They can be found among shingle alongside creeks, often in great abundance. From the similar sister species Bembidion tibiale, which is found in the same habitats they are best distinguished by inspection of the aedoeagus of the male. The species is known to occur from Northern Europe (Scotland, Norway) over Western and Central Europe to Asia Minor and to the Caucasus. It lives in the montane to alpine zone. In Germany, the species is missing in the north, but is common in the south and is regarded as not endangered in the Red List. (FB)

Anthrenus scrophulariae (L., 1758)
Anthrenus scrophulariae
The 2 to 3.8 mm large common carpet beetle Anthrenus scrophulariae (family Dermestidae) is in our fauna one of six species of the genus Anthrenus, which comprises approx. 200 species worldwide. Initially originating from the Palearctic, Anthrenus scrophulariae is today of cosmopolitan distribution, but is more common in north temperate regions. The beetles feed on pollen and nectar, whereas the larvae feed on substrates containing keratin or chitin. Hence, the larvae can be found outdoors on dead insects, hair, feathers, but also in homes as a pest on fur, carpets, wool and in museums as serious pest in collections. The best way to prevent infestations is to protect its food source. This is achieved by good sanitation practices such as dusting and vacuuming. When infestations are localized, non-chemical methods can be used to eliminate them. Extreme cold and heat for several hours will kill the larvae on infested goods. (CB)

Sinodendron cylindricum (L., 1758)
Sinodendron cylindricum
The 12 to 16 mm large Rhinoceros Beetle Sinodendron cylindricum (family Lucanidae) is the only representative of the genus in our fauna. In the Palearctic it comprises four species, of which one also occurs in the Nearctic. Both genders wear a horn on their heads, which is larger and with yellow hairs on the rear side in the male. The distribution ranges from Northern Spain of entire Europe (with the exception of the far North and South) to Western Siberia. The beetle can be found in old, deciduous forests from the planar to the subalpine zone. The beetle develops in beech, occasionally in other deciduous trees. After a 2-year development, the larvae pupate in summer. The beetles hatch in autumn, hibernate in the pupal chamber and appear in the summer of the following year. In Germany, Sinodendron cylindricum has been recorded from all Federal States but is regarded as vulnerable (RL 3). (CB)

Ips sexdentatus (Boerner, 1767)
Ips sexdentatus
The 5.5 to 7.5 mm large six-toothed bark beetle Ips sexdentatus (family Scolytidae) is one of six species of the genus Ips in our fauna, which comprises about 40 species worldwide, mainly in the northern hemisphere. Ips sexdentatus occurs in Europe and Asia and is regarded as forestry pest. It attacks mainly Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), occasionally other conifers. Attacks are initiated by the males, who construct nuptial chambers under the bark and attract several females by emitting pheromones. Young larvae feed in galleries perpendicular to the egg chamber. The number of generations depends on climate and ranges from one per year north of the Arctic Circle to 4-5 in the Mediterranean region. The control of outbreaks is very difficult thus the prevention of outbreaks is emphasized. Unhealthy and wind-thrown trees, as well as slash, should be quickly removed and processed. (CB)

Rhynchites cupreus (L., 1758)
Rhynchites cupreus
The 3.5 to 4.5 mm large plum borer Rhynchites cupreus (family Rhynchitidae) belongs to a genus that has seen many taxonomic changes over the recent years. Meanwhile its former representatives are counted into the genera Tatianaerynchites, Involvulus (here the species cupreus), Pseudomechoris, Teretriorhynchites and Rhynchites. Rhynchites cupreus is known to occur from Europe (without the British Isles) to Siberia. The eurytopic, oligophagous species lives on various trees and shrubs of the Rosaceae family, in particular plum, cherry and blackthorn in cool and shady habitats. The can cause damage in plum and cherry cultivation. However, due to the usually small abundances, the economic impact is limited. In Germany, Rhynchites cupreus is recorded from all Federal states and is not endangered. (CB)

Tillus elongatus (L., 1758)
Tillus elongatus
The 6 to 9 mm large checkered beetle Tillus elongatus (family Cleridae) is the only representative of the genus Tillus in our fauna. The subfamily Tillinae comprises about 550 species worldwide, they are most diverse in the epiequatorial Neotropics. Tillus elongatus shows a marked sexual dimorphism: While the male is all black, the female is slightly larger and exhibits a red pronotum. The thermophilous species occurs in Europe including the British Isles to the Caucasus and lives in old deciduous and mixed forests and parks. Its larvae prey on the development stages of other wood dwelling insects, in particular the Fan-bearing Wood-borer Ptilinus pectinicornis. In Germany, Tillus elongates is widespread and recorded from all Federal States, but not everywhere common. It is regarded as vulnerable (RL 3). (CB)

Batrisus formicarius Aubé, 1833
Batrisus formicarius
With its body length of 3.1 to 3.5 mm, the short-winged mold beetle Batrisus formicarius (family Pselaphidae) is already among the larger representatives of the family in our fauna. In Europe, the genus comprises only two, in the Palearctic totally ten species. Batrisus formicarius is known to occur in Central and Southern Europe. It can be found in deciduous forests, parks and river meadows. It lives in the nests of the brown wood ant Lasius brunneus in decaying wood and in wood detritus in hollow trees, as well as under loose bark and moss on trees and logs. Batrisus formicarius has been recorded from almost all Federal states with the exception on Schleswig-Holstein and the Lower Elbe region. The species is not endangered but is not recorded very often and is regarded as rather rare. (CB)

Otiorhynchus fullo (Schrk., 1781)
Otiorhynchus fullo
With almost 1000 species, the weevil genus Otiorhynchus is by far the most speciose genus of the weevils (family Curculionidae) in Europe. In Central Europe, about 170 Otiorhynchus species are known. Many of them are restricted to extremely small localities in the mountain range. The 5 to 8 mm large Otiorhynchus fullo however, is mainly a eastern European species of the lower altitudes, which reaches the western boundary of its distribution range in Germany. To that effect, it is mainly recorded in the eastern Federal States of Germany, although some records from Hesse and the Palatinate have been published. The thermophilous species lives on various deciduous trees and shrubs, e.g. blackthorn and hawthorn. The larva develops in the soil. Otiorhynchus fullo is not particularly common, still it is not regarded as endangered. (MS)

Donacia reticulata Gyll., 1817
Donacia reticulata
The 7.5 to 11 mm large reed beetle Donacia reticulata (family Chrysomelidae) is one of approx. 20 representatives of the Holarctic genus in our fauna. Globally, Donacia comprises approx. 80 species, which are sometimes not easy to determine. Donacia reticulate is known to occur in Northwest Africa and Southwest Europe (Portugal, Spain, France, Netherlands, Italy, Slovenia, Austria and Croatia). Until recently, in Germany only existed old records from Bavaria and the species was regarded as missing or extinct (RL 0). Meanwhile, it has been newly discovered in the North Rhine region. The stenotopic, hygrophilous and graminicolous species lives on simplestem bur-reed (Sparganium erectum) and on common bulrush (Typha latifolia), some authors also cite sedges (Carex) as host plant. (CB)

Megopis scabricornis (Scop., 1763)
Megopis scabricornis
The 30 to 50 mm large longhorn beetle Megopis scabricornis (family Cerambycidae) is among the largest and very rare beetle species and the only representative of genus Megopis in our fauna. Its distribution ranges from Northern Spain over the southern part of Central Europe to Asia minor, the Caucasus and Iran. The thermophilous urwald relic species is polyphagous. Its larvae develop in decaying, moist wood of dying deciduous trees (e.g. beech, lime, poplar apple, cherry and horse chestnut) in deciduous forests, parks, alleys, traditional orchards and river meadows. The beetles appear from June to August. They are crepuscular and nocturnal and are attracted to light. In Germany, known records are mainly from the southwest with a few scattered records from Brandenburg and Saxony. It is regarded as critically endangered (RL 1). (CB)

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