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Text © K. Reißmann, T. Hörren, M. Stern and C. Benisch

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Ochina ptinoides (Marsh., 1802)
Ochina ptinoides
The 2.5 to 3.8 mm large Ivy boring beetle Ochina ptinoides (family Anobiidae) is the more common representative of the two species of the genus in Germany. In Europe, the genus comprises five species in total. Ochina ptinoides is known to occur from North Africa over Spain and Central Europe (including the British Isles) to Greece and Russia. The stenotopic, thermophilous species can be found in parks, gardens, vineyards and at the edges of forests on ivy (Hedera helix). The larvae develop in dry or semi-dry old ivy branches of a few centimeters of diameter. The beetles are diurnal and swarm in the evening hours. They are attracted to light. Whereas not rare in regions with favorable warm climate, the species becomes rarer towards the East and is regarded as vulnerable (RL 3) in Germany. (CB)

Hoshihananomia perlata (Sulz., 1776)
Hoshihananomia perlata
In Germany, the 6.8 to 10 mm large tumbling flower beetle Hoshihananomia perlata (family Mordellidae) is the only representative of the genus, which comprises three species in Europe and more than 100 species in the tropic region, where it is quite speciose. Its distribution is discontinuous and ranges from South France to North Japan without Northern and Southeast Europe. The thermophilic beetle belongs to the Urwald relic species. The adult beetles can be found on blossoming herbs and shrubs as well as on dead wood. The larvae develop in dead wood of deciduous trees, mainly oak, beech and birch. In the sunshine, the beetles escape very swiftly when only slightly disturbed. In Germany, the species is regarded as endangered (RL 2). However, it has increased its range over the recent years. (CB)

Aphodius obliteratus Panz., 1823
Aphodius obliteratus
The 4.5 to 7 mm large dung beetle Aphodius obliteratus (family Scarabaeidae) belongs to the speciose tribe Aphodiini, which comprises about 170 genera and more than 2000 species worldwide. From Germany, more than 60 species of the genus have been recorded. A. obliteratus is known to occur in Western, Central and Southern Europe and prefers forests. It can be distinguished from its similar sister species A. contaminatus by the missing long setae at the lateral margins of the pronotum. The beetles appear already early in spring, from February to April, and again in September and October. The development takes place in all kinds of dung, preferably of large herbivores. In Germany, the species is of more western distribution and is not too common. Aphodius obliterates is regarded as vulnerable (RL 3). (CB)

Acalles aubei Boh., 1837
Acalles aubei
The 3.5 to 5.5 mm large Acalles aubei (family Curculionidae) is among the larger representatives of the 14 species of the genus in Germany. Worldwide, the speciose subfamily Cryptorhynchinae comprises about 6000 species. The stenotopic, silvicolous species is known to occur from the Pyrenees and southern Central Europe to the Caucasus. The beetles can be found from May to October in deciduous and mixed forests, especially beech forests, where the live on dead branches of beech (Fagus) and chestnut (Castanea), occasionally on young firs (Abies). The can be found by using a beating tray or be sieving leaf litter. In Germany, recent records are only known from the Southwest (Baden, Palatinate and Saarland), but altogether scattered and rare. Acalles aubei is therefore regarded as endangered (RL 2). (CB)

Xylotrechus rusticus (L., 1758)
Xylotrechus rusticus
The 9 to 20 mm large aspen zebra beetle Xylotrechus rusticus (family Cerambycidae) is among the relatively more common five representatives of the genus in Germany. The species is of palearctic distribution and ranges from Europe over Central Asia and Siberia to Korea and Japan. The stenotopic, silvicolous and xylodetricolous species lives in deciduous forests and at the edges of forests, in the Upper Rhine valley mainly in floodplain forests. The diurnal beetles can be found from End of May to July on dying or cut deciduous trees, e.g. willow, aspen, beech, birch and poplar, where their coloration provides excellent camouflage. The larval development takes up to three years in the wood of the above mentioned trees. In Germany, the species is missing in the Northwest. It is regarded as rare and endangered (RL 2). (CB)

Lygistopterus sanguineus (L., 1758)
Lygistopterus sanguineus
The 6 to 12 mm large Lygistopterus sanguineus belongs to the seven species of the net-winged beetles (family Lycidae) in Germany and is the only representative of the genus in our fauna. Worldwide, the genus comprises 39 species, the majority of them in the Nearctic and Neotropic. Lygistopterus sanguineus is distinguished from all other Lycidae species in the European fauna by a snout protruding from the head. The eurytopic, silvicolous species is known to occur from Europe over Asia Minor to Eastern Siberia. In Germany recent records have been reported from virtually all Federal States and the species is not endangered. It can be found at the edges of forests on flowering herbs and shrubs as well as on decaying wood, especially oak and birch. The larvae are carnivorous, whereas the adult beetles feed on pollen. (CB)

Microhoria nectarina (Panz., 1797)
Microhoria nectarina
The 3.8 to 4.5 mm large antlike flower beetle Microhoria nectarina (family Anthicidae) is one of two representatives of the genus present in Germany. With 90 representatives the genus is more speciose in Southern Europe. Formerly the species were counted into genus Anthicus. Microhoria nectarina is known to occur from the southern part of Central Europe to South Siberia and Central Asia. In Germany recent record have been reported from the Palatinate and Saxony-Anhalt only. M. nectarina is regarded as critically endangered (RL 1). The halotolerant species can be found at the edges of saline lakes, on heathland, in vineyards and sunny banks. Its occurrences are localized and scattered, but often with a large number of individuals. M. nectarina lives in decaying plant matter, in the low vegetation and on flowering plants. (CB)

Chlaenius nitidulus (Schrk., 1781)
Chlaenius nitidulus
The 10 to 13 mm large vivid metallic ground beetle Chlaenius nitidulus (family Carabidae) is among the more common representatives of the ten species of the genus in Germany. Worldwide 860 species from 58 subgenera have been described from the Palearctic, Nearctic and Afrotropical region. Chlaenius nitidulus is known to occur in East, Central and South Europe as well as on the British Isles. The eurytopic, hygrophilous species prefers sun-exposed, loamy watersides in floodplains and clay pits and can be found on humid calcareous soil as well. Their lifestyle is predaceous, similar to many other ground beetles. Chlaenius nitidulus is mainly crepuscular and nocturnal and hides underneath stones in wet places during the day. In Germany the species is known from most Federal States and is regarded as vulnerable (RL 3). (CB)

Platambus maculatus (L., 1758)
Platambus maculatus
The 7 to 8.5 mm large diving beetle Platambus maculatus (family Dytiscidae) is the only representative of the genus Platambus in Germany, which is quite speciose in the Palearctic and to a lesser extent in the Nearctic. The stenotopic species ranges from Europe to the Caucasus and Western Siberia. It is rheophilous and lives in the stagnant water zone of slowly flowing rivers and creeks with rich vegetation as well as in the surf-zone of lakes. Often the gregarious beetles can be found at the lower side of driftwood and on the water vegetation. Beetles and larvae prey on other water insects. When disturbed they exude a defense secretion, which contains the sesquiterpene Platambin as main component (Schildknecht, 1975). In Germany, Platambus maculatus is recorded from all Federal States and is not endangered. (CB)

Onthophilus striatus (Forst., 1771)
Onthophilus striatus
The 2 to 2.5 mm large clown beetle Onthophilus striatus (family Histeridae) is one of four representatives of the genus in Europe. The holarctic genus comprises approx. 40 species, thereof two recorded from Germany. Some species in the genus live in the burrows of small mammals, others are phytodetricolous. Onthophilus striatus is known to occur in Southern, Western and Central Europe including the British Isles. The eurytopic, phytodetricolous species lives on grassland, in gardens and river meadows and at the edges of forests. The beetles can be found in decaying plant matter (also mushrooms), in compost, in dung heaps and straw, as well as in dung, carrion and bird nests. In Germany the species is widespread, but recent records are missing from the eastern Federal States. Onthophilus striatus is not endangered. (CB)

Lomechusa emarginata (Payk., 1789)
Lomechusa emarginata
The 3.5 to 4.5 mm large rove beetle Lomechusa emarginata (family Staphylinidae) is the most common species of the three representatives of the genus in Germany. The myrmecophilous species is of Eurosiberian distribution. It lives on close relationship with ants: In autumn, the freshly hatched beetle leaves the nest of Formica fusca, waits a few days until the chitinous exoskeleton has hardened and the smell of F. fusca has worn off. It then hibernates in the nest of the European fire ant (Myrmica rubra). In spring it returns to the nest of Formica fusca and allows its larvae to be reared by the ants. The beetles can be found at the edges of forests and clearings, both in the ant nest but also on the lower vegetation around the nest or swarming. In Germany, L. emarginata is present in all Federal States and not endangered. (CB)

Cyrtosus ovalis (Cast., 1836)
Cyrtosus ovalis
The 3 to 4 mm large soft-winged flower beetle Cyrtosus ovalis (family Malachiidae) is the only representative of the genus in Germany. The first record for our fauna was made in North Baden in June 2010. In Europe the genus comprises eleven species with predominantly southern European distribution. Cyrtosus ovalis is known to occur in entire Italy. Furthermore records in Austria and Switzerland have been made. The stenotopic, thermophilous beetles prefer warm habitats, e.g. xerothermic shrubby heaths. The beetles can be found on flowers, where they feed on pollen. They are easily confused with representatives of genus Axinotarsus, but differ in coloration and the shape of the pronotum, which gets narrower towards the base. As a newcomer to the German fauna, Cyrtosus ovalis is not mentioned in the Red List. (CB)

Korynetes ruficornis Sturm, 1837
Korynetes ruficornis
The 3.5 to 7 mm large checkered beetle Korynetes ruficornis (family Cleridae) is one of two very similar species of the genus in Germany. In former times they were not separated, but differ in the puncture of their pronotum, which is more dense and congested towards the lateral margin. Korynetes ruficornis ranges from Europe (without the far North) to Siberia. In Germany it is rarer than its sister species K. caeruleus in the North, whereas it dominates in the South. The eurytopic, silvicolous and also synanthropic species lives in forests, parks, gardens and in shelters and carpenter's workshops. Both beetles and larvae prey on saproxylic beetles, e.g. anobiid (Anobiidae) and bark beetles (Scolytidae). In Germany, Korynetes ruficornis is not regarded as endangered, but is not often recorded. (CB)

Holoparamecus caularum (Aube, 1843)
Holoparamecus caularum
The 1.0 to 1.1 mm large handsome fungus beetle Holoparamecus caularum (family Endomychidae) is the only representative of the genus in Germany. Worldwide 44 species have been described, thereof seven from Europe. In the past, the genus and the comprising subfamily Holoparamecinae was counted into the family of the minute scavenger beetles (Latridiidae). Holoparamecus caularum is a cosmopolitan and is regarded as established in warmer regions of the world, including Central Europe, the subterranean region, China and California. The stenotopic, and due to its small size rather inconspicuous species lives in decaying foliage, mouldy straw, cereal compost and in the lower layers of dung heaps. The beetles feed on mould fungi. In Germany Holoparamecus caularum is known from several Federal States and is not endangered. (CB)

Tanysphyrus ater Blatch., 1928
Tanysphyrus ater
The 1.4 to 1.8 mm large weevil Tanysphyrus ater (family Curculionidae) is the less common of the two representatives of the holarctic genus in Germany. Worldwide five species have been described, thereof three only from Siberia. Tanysphyrus ater ranges from Scandinavia and Northern Russia to the eastern part of Central Europe and the Ukraine, and is known to occur in North America, where the species was first described by Blatcheley in 1928. The stenotopic, hygrophilous beetle lives in standing waters and oxbow lakes on Purple-fringed Riccia (Ricciocarpus natans), probably also on other liverworts of genus Riccia. In Germany, the species is scattered and rare, in North and East slightly more common, in the South rare and it is missing in the West. Tanysphyrus ater is regarded as vulnerable (RL 3). (CB)

Aspidapion aeneum (F., 1775)
Aspidapion aeneum
The 2.9 to 3.6 mm large apionid weevil Aspidapion aeneum (family Apionidae) is one of three representatives of the genus in Germany. The eurytopic, xerophilous species ranges over the entire Palearctic, in Europe from the South to the southern part of North Europe. The beetle prefers warm and dry habitats, e.g. sunny fallow land, ruderal sites, waysides and slopes. They live on mallows, e.g. Common Mallow (Malva sylvestris) and Roundleaf Mallow (M. neglecta), in gardens also on Common Hollyhock (Alcea rosea). The larvae develop in the lower stalk and in the roots, contrary the other apionid weevils on mallows, which prefer the fruits, leaf stalks and upper stalk. The beetles hatch in autumn and appear in May of the following year. In Germany, the species is widespread and common. It is not endangered, but rare in some parts. (CB)

Phaeochrotes cinctus (Payk., 1800)
Phaeochrotes cinctus
The 2 to 3 mm large fungus weevil Phaeochrotes cinctus (family Anthribidae) is the only representative of the genus in Europe. Worldwide, six species have been described. With the exception of P. cinctus they are native to Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines), one species to Sri Lanka. The stenotopic, silvicolous Phaeochrotes cinctus is known to occur in Central and Southeastern Europe, Asia Minor till Mongolia and Nepal. It develops in sun-exposed brushwood of deciduous trees, like oak (Quercus), hornbeam (Carpinus), elm (Ulmus), hazel (Corylus) and alder (Alnus). The beetles can be found in deciduous forests, at the edges of forests and on clear cuttings. In Germany recent records are known from virtually all Federal States, but the species is not too often recorded and is regarded as vulnerable (RL 3). (CB)

Gonioctena decemnotata (Marsh., 1802)
Gonioctena decemnotata
The 5.5 to 7.5 mm large leaf beetle Gonioctena decemnotata (family Chrysomelidae) belongs to the more common representatives of the eleven species of the genus in Germany. With its black and red coloration and the entirely red legs it is still relatively easy to determine – contrary the many other species in the genus. The eurytopic species lives in Northern and Central Europe in deciduous and riparian forests. Both beetles and larvae feed on the leaves of poplar (Populus) and willow (Salix). The female exhibits brood care behavior, which is rare among leaf beetles: It resides at the stem of the leaf on which its larvae feed, and tries to fend off predators like ladybirds and ants. In Germany, recent records of Gonioctena decemnotata are known from virtually all Federal States and the species is not endangered. (CB)

Chrysobothris solieri Lap. Gory, 1837
Chrysobothris solieri
The genus Chrysobothris belongs to the jewel beetles (family Buprestidae). There are four representatives of the genus in Germany. With 7 to 12 mm size, C. solieri is among the smaller species of the genus. The 2-year development cycle takes place in the wood of ailing or newly dead pine (Pinus), especially Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) in trunks and branches of diameters up to 15 cm. The infestation can be recognized by the brownish discoloration of the needles. At the end of the development the larvae hibernate in the puparium and pupate in the following year. The beetles are markedly thermophilous. The can be found during the warmest hours of the day on the host trees, where they escape swiftly when disturbed. In Germany, the species is regarded as vulnerable (RL 3). In the recent years, the species extended its range to the north. (KR)

Acanthocinus aedilis (L., 1758)
Acanthocinus aedilis
The 12 to 20 mm large timberman beetle Acanthocinus aedilis (family Cerambycidae) is the most common species of the genus in Germany. The antennae of the female are around two times of the body length, those of the male even around five times. The stenotopic species lives in temperate to cold-temperate climate, Europe to North Balkan, the Caucasus, Siberia, Mongolia and China. It occurs in coniferous and mixed forests from the lowlands to the mountains. The diurnal beetles can be found on recently felled logs of pine. They feed on needles, bast fiber and bark of their host trees. The larvae develop within 1-2 years under the bark of pine, occasionally fir, spruce and larch. The hatch in autumn and hibernate in their puparium. In Germany recent records are known from virtually all Federal States. The species is not endangered. (CB)

Hoplia argentea (Poda, 1761)
Hoplia argentea
The 9 to 11 mm large Hoplia argentea (family Scarabaeidae) is one of four species of the genus currently recorded in Germany. The species ranges from the southern parts of Central Europe to Southeast Europe and prefers montane regions. In Germany its occurrence is limited to the Alps and their foothills, the Bavarian Forest, the Swabian Jura and the Black Forest as well as the Lower Elbe region. Hoplia argentea is not endangered in Germany. It lives in open habitats with hedgerows, on meadows and at the edges of forests. The beetles feed on pollen, whereas their larvae live in the ground and feed on plant roots. The development cycle takes two years. The intense color of the beetles is caused by reflection of sunlight by their scales, the very same mechanism as in butterflies (interference color). (CB)

Trox perlatus (Goeze, 1777)
Trox perlatus
With a size of 7 to 10 mm Trox perlatus is among the largest representatives of the genus in Germany. In the past, the hide beetles (family Trogidae) were regarded as a subfamily of the family Scarabaeidae. Trox perlatus is a stenotopic and thermophilous species, which feeds on dry carrion, bones, fur and fur remains as well as hairballs. Occasionally the beetles can be found on excrements, mainly of dogs. Contrary to the other Central European representatives of the genus, it can be easily recognized by the shiny tubercles on the elytra and is unmistakable with any other Trox species in our domestic fauna. Trox perlatus is known to occur in Western and Southern Europe. In Germany the species is found only in the western part in warm and dry habitats and is generally regarded as rare and endangered (RL 2). (KR)

Bledius tricornis (Hbst., 1784)
Bledius tricornis
The 5.5 to 7 mm large rove beetle Bledius tricornis (family Staphylinidae) is one of 40 representatives of the genus in Germany, which are not easily distinguished. The stenotopic species is known to occur in the southern Palearctic, from Southern Europe to the southern part of Northern Europe, Asia Minor, the Caucasus to South Siberia and China. The beetles are halotolerant, they can be found both on the coast and in the inland on sandy and loamy substrates. The front legs are of the fossorial type. The beetles dig burrow systems into the soil. When flushed with water, they come to the surface. Presumably they feed on algae. On warm days, the beetles swarm during dusk and are attracted to light sources. Bledius tricornis is recorded from virtually all Federal States, but is regarded as vulnerable (RL 3). (CB)

Eustrophus dermestoides (F., 1792)
Eustrophus dermestoides
The 4 to 5 mm large false darkling beetle Eustrophus dermestoides (family Melandryidae) is the only representative of the genus in Germany. The genus is of holarctic distribution with one species in North America and three in the Palearctic. Eustrophus dermestoides ranges from Southern over Central Europe to Finland, Poland and the Baltic states. The stenotopic, mycetobiont species prefers deciduous forests and parks as habitat. They can be mainly found on the sulphur shelf (Laetiporus sulphureus) on deciduous trees, e.g. oak (Quercus), beech (Fagus) and willow (Salix). The adults appear from late spring to summer and are nocturnal. At first sight, they resemble skin beetles of genus Dermestes. In Germany, there are only old records from a number of Federal States and the species is regarded as vulnerable (RL 3). (CB)

Anthicus bimaculatus (Ill., 1801)
Anthicus bimaculatus
The 3 to 3.5 mm large antlike flower beetle Anthicus bimaculatus (family Anthicidae) is one of five representatives of the genus in Germany. Worldwide, the genus Anthicus is present in all terrestrial ecozones. The distribution of the stenotopic, psammophilic Anthicus bimaculatus ranges from France over Germany, Poland and the Baltic states to Russia. Its yellow, brownish and black coloration serves as a good camouflage in its habitat, sandy edges of water bodies, both sea and inland fresh water, as well as sandy dunes, mostly at the roots of grasses and in detritus. During the day the beetles hide in the sandy substrate. At dusk the leave their hiding places in search for food. In Germany recent records are known from many Federal States, with the exception of the southeast. Anthicus bimaculatus is regarded as vulnerable (RL 3). (CB)

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