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Text © K. Reißmann, T. Hörren, M. Stern, F. Bötzl and C. Benisch

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Mogulones larvatus (Schltz., 1896)
Mogulones larvatus
The almost 5 mm large root-crown weevil Mogulones larvatus (family Curculionidae) with its coloration rich in contrast appears in spring, mostly from April to June, but a bit later than its smaller sister species Mogulones pallidicornis, which often appears already in March. Mogulones larvatus is also considerably rarer and seems to prefer taller specimen of the host plant common lungwort (Pulmonaria officinalis). The species is known to occur throughout almost entire Europe, North Africa and Siberia in the East. However, in Germany records are rare and scattered and the species is regarded as endangered (RL 2). While in Germany the species is found in beech forests, in Southern Europe it also lives in more open habitats on viper's bugloss (Echium) species. In Australia it is even used as a biological control agent against imported expansive Echium species. (MS)

Cymindis humeralis (Geoffr., 1785)
Cymindis humeralis
The ground beetle Cymindis humeralis (family Carabidae) is a characteristic species of calcareous grassland and heathland. The genus Cymindis comprises approx. 40 species in Europe, thereof nine are present in Germany. With 8 to 11 mm body length, Cymindis humeralis is medium-sized. Its coloration is typical: Dark, glabrous elytra with a light-colored spot at the base. The species is among to more common representatives of the genus. It is known to occur from the southern part of Northern Europe to North Africa and Western Asia. In Germany the species is widespread, but is not very often recorded. For this reason, and due to the progressing loss of its habitats, Cymindis humeralis is classified as vulnerable (RL 3) in the Red List of endangered species in Germany. (FB)

Dasycerus sulcatus Brongn., 1800
Dasycerus sulcatus
The only 1.8 to 2.3 mm large rove beetle Dasycerus sulcatus (family Staphylinidae) is one of four representatives of the genus and the only one occurring in our fauna. Formerly, the species where counted into a separated family (Dasyceridae), but have been transferred as subfamily to the family roves beetles. The brown body exhibits characteristic chitinous sculptures. The long, thin antenna are very conspicuous. Dasycerus sulcatus is known to occur from North Africa over South and Central Europe to the Caucasus. The eurytopic, mycetophagous species can be found decaying plant matter and in moldy detritus as well as in patches of moss and in decaying dead wood in deciduous and mixed forests of the colline zone. The feed on fungal hyphae. In Germany, Dasycerus sulcatus is missing in the northern regions. It is not regarded as endangered. (CB)

Agrilus sinuatus (Ol., 1790)
Agrilus sinuatus
The 4.5 to 10 mm large Sinuate Peartree Borer Agrilus sinuatus (family Buprestidae) is one of approx. 30 representatives of the genus in our fauna. Worldwide the speciose genus comprises almost 2900 species. The distribution of Agrilus sinuatus ranges from Western Europe to Siberia and the Transbaikal Region. It also has been introduced to North America. Especially after warm summers, it can become a pest in pear cultivation as well as in hawthorn. The larvae feed under the bark and create characteristic zig-zag-shaped galleries. The bark shows cracks and patches of fermenting tree sap are usually visible. Moderate infestation can be usually managed, but in case of severe infestations, the trees die after 2-3 years. In Germany, Agrilus sinuatus has been recorded from most regions and is not endangered. However, the adults are only rarely found in the wild. (CB)

Reesa vespulae (Mill., 1939)
Reesa vespulae
The 2.8 to 3.8 mm large Wasp Nest Dermestid Reesa vespulae (family Dermestidae) is the only representative of the monotypic genus worldwide. Initially originating from North America, Reesa vespulae has been introduced to many regions and countries of the world, e.g. Europe, Russia and Japan, North Africa, Australia and New Zealand as well as Chile. During the 1960s it began to appear in Europe and has become common since then. In nature, it lives in bee hives and wasps' nests where it feeds on dead insects, but it can also live on other dried animal and plant matter. In museum collections they can become a dangerous pest. In households however, the rarely create any damage. The females deposit up to 100 eggs on suitable substrates. After hatching, the larvae dig themselves into the substrate. In Germany, Reesa vespulae is recorded from many Federal States and is not regarded as endangered. (CB)

Hedobia regalis (Duft., 1825)
Hedobia regalis
The 3 to 4.5 mm large anobiid beetle Hedobia regalis (family Anobiidae) is one of three representatives of the genus in our fauna. Meanwhile, two of the species have been transferred to genus Ptinomorphus. Hedobia regalis occurs from Europe (with exception of the British Isles and the North) to Asia minor and the Caucasus. The stenotopic, thermophilous species lives at sun-exposed edges of forests, on shrubs and bushes on warm slopes and in parks. It develops in decaying wood of deciduous trees. The sister species Hedobia imperialis looks very similar. It can be distinguished by the absence and raised stripes on the elytra. Both share the same habitat types, but Hedobia regalis is confined to warm regions of Central and Southern Europe. In Germany, with the exception of Saxony-Anhalt, Hedobia regalis has been recorded only from the Southwest and is regarded as endangered (RL 2). (CB)

Osphya bipunctata (F., 1775)
Osphya bipunctata
The 5 to 11 mm large false darkling beetle Osphya bipunctata (family Melandryidae) is currently the only representative of the genus in Germany, although its sister species, O. aeneipennis does occur in the Alps and might appear in South Germany. Worldwide, the genus comprises approx. 25 species. Osphya bipunctata occurs from South England over Central and Southeast Europe to the Caspian Sea. The stenotopic, thermophilous species lives in sparse deciduous forests (often floodplain forests) and at the sun-exposed edges of forests. The adults can be found on blossoming bushes, e.g. hawthorn (Crataegus), dogwood (Cornus) and Viburnum. Some males (but not all) exhibit thickened and spiked rear femora. Osphya bipunctata is recorded from most regions in Germany, but it is regarded as endangered (RL 2). (CB)

Aphodius quadrimaculatus (L., 1761)
Aphodius quadrimaculatus
The 3 to 4 mm large pasture cockchafer Aphodius quadrimaculatus (family Scarabaeidae) is one on numerous representatives of the genus. Worldwide the genus comprises more than 1000 species, in Europe approx. 130, thereof around 60 are currently recorded from Germany. The genus is undergoing taxonomic revision and is split up in several genera at the moment. Aphodius quadrimaculatus occurs from Western, Central and Southern Europe to Asia minor and the Caucasus. The stenotopic, thermophilous species lives on warm and dry slopes and appears from March to June. They can be found on sheep dung, rarely on cow dung and occasionally in the burrows of rodents and foxes. After mating the females deposit their eggs directly in the dung. The larvae feed of the dung. In Germany, the species is missing in the North and the East. It is not endangered. (CB)

Trichoferus pallidus (Ol., 1790)
Trichoferus pallidus
The 14 to 21 mm large longhorn beetle Trichoferus pallidus (family Cerambycidae) is the only representative of the genus in our fauna. The thermophilous species is known to occur from Western over Central Europa to the Crimea and the Northern Caucasus. The nocturnal species can be found in old oak forests on old oaks with partially dead treetop and in the process of dying. Trichoferus pallidus is very demanding concerning its habitat. Occurrences are limited to forests which have never been devastated since the end of the last glacial period 12,500 years ago. Its larvae develop under the bark of trunks and thick branches of oak, very rarely of beech or lime. Recent records in Germany are only known from Baden, the Palatinate and Hesse. Trichoferus pallidus is regarded as critically endangered (RL 1). (CB)

Chrysomela vigintipunctata Scop., 1763
Chrysomela vigintipunctata
The 6.5 to 8.5 mm large spotted willow leaf beetle Chrysomela vigintipunctata (family Chrysomelidae) is one of seven representatives of the otherwise holarctic genus in Germany. The distribution of Chrysomela vigintipunctata ranges from Eastern France to Japan. The stenotopic, ripicolous beetles can be found from April to August in forests near waterbodies on willow, less often on birch and alder. Both the beetles and their larvae feed on the leaves of their host plants. The larvae skeletonize leaves, especially at the edges and have a tendency to aggregate. They can cause economic damage in tree nurseries when willows and alder are attacked there. The species is recorded from almost all regions of Germany and is regarded as not endangered. (CB)

Coeliodes trifasciatus Bach, 1854
Coeliodes trifasciatus
The palearctic genus Coeliodes (family Curculionidae) comprises around 30 species, which all develop in oak, contrary to the representatives of the closely related genus Coeliodinus, which lives on birch and was regarded as a subgenus of Coeliodes in the past. With their coloration, the adults resemble oak buds, hence they are perfectly camouflaged on the branches still leafless in spring. They deposit their eggs in the buds and the larvae develop in the developing catkin. The new generation appears in early summer and hibernates in leaf litter. Among the five species of the genus in Germany, Coeliodes trifasciatus is the most thermophilous. The southern and central European species lives on common oak, in the south also on downy oak. In our fauna, it is limited to south-facing, dry oak coppice and edges of forests. Coeliodes trifasciatus is everywhere rather rare, but is still not regarded as endangered. (MS)

Odacantha melanura (L., 1767)
Odacantha melanura
The conspicuous ground beetle Odacantha melanura (family Carabidae) is the only European representative of the genus, which is most speciose in the tropic region. The 6 to 8 mm large species is known to occur throughout Europe to western Siberia. The species is hygrophilous and lives at the edges of waterbodies, swamps and wet meadows with plenty of reed from the planar to the colline zone. They mate in spring. The beetles are predaceous and feed mainly on springtails (Collembola). They hibernate in the stalks of reed, where also the larvae develop. In Germany, Odacantha melanura is currently recorded from the North mainly. Although it is known to occur throughout Germany, it is not too often recorded. In the Red list of endangered species of Germany it is therefore regarded as near threatened. (FB)

Plegaderus dissectus Er., 1839
Plegaderus dissectus
The only 1 to 1.5 mm large clown beetle Plegaderus dissectus (family Histeridae) is one of only five representatives of the genus in Germany. Worldwide, the genus comprises 28 species, thereof 14 in the Nearctic region. The distribution of Plegaderus dissectus ranges from Central and Southern Europe to the Caucasus. The stenotopic, silvicolous and lignicolous species lives in deciduous forests and parks in decaying stumps of deciduous infested with white rot., as well as in tinder fungus on beech and associated with ants, mainly Lasius brunneus and Formica cunicularia. They are thought to be preying on the larvae of bark beetles. Due to their small size they are often overlooked. In Germany, Plegaderus dissectus ist present in almost all Federal States, but is regarded as vulnerable (RL 3). (CB)

Scintillatrix rutilans (F., 1777)
Scintillatrix rutilans
The 9 to 15 mm large jewel beetle Scintillatrix rutilans (family Buprestidae) is one of only three representatives of the genus in Germany. Worldwide the genus comprises approx. 55 species from Europe to Eurasia and Japan. Scintillatrix rutilans is known to occur from Europe to South Russia and avoids the influence of the atlantic climate. It populates sun-exposed, old lime trees, e.g. on south-facing slopes, lime alleys and solitary trees in residential areas. The development takes 2-3 years and takes place under the bark. The adult beetles swarm in warm, sunny weather, but hide quickly when the sky is cloudy and overcast. Especially the males escape swiftly in sunshine. They appear from May to July. In Germany, recent records are only known from the southern half of the country. Scintillatrix rutilans is regarded as endangered (RL 2). (CB)

Clitostethus arcuatus (Rossi, 1794)
Clitostethus arcuatus
The only 1.2 to 1.5 mm large ladybird Clitostethus arcuatus (family Coccinellidae) is thermophilous and in Europe mainly of Mediterranean distribution. In Central Europe it is limited to habitats with favorable warm climate, e.g. the Upper Rhine valley. The beetles live on ivy, deciduous and coniferous trees. They prey on representatives of the whiteflies (Aleyrodidae) native to Europe. For pest control purposes they have been introduced to many countries, e.g. California, Chile and Iran as a biological control agent against ash whitefly, Siphoninus phillyreae, which attacks ash, but also many fruit trees and citrus. In Central Europe the beetles can generate up to three overlapping generations between May and early November. The stenotopic species is regarded as endangered (RL 2) in our fauna. (CB)

Abdera quadrifasciata (Curt., 1829)
Abdera quadrifasciata
The 2.5 to 4 mm large false darkling beetle Abdera quadrifasciata (family Melandryidae) is in Germany one of five representatives, which is otherwise present with several species both in the Palearctic and in the Nearctic. The stenotopic, silvicolous species is known to occur in Western, Eastern and Southern Europe, but only sporadically in Central Europe. The beetles can be found in warm habitats on stems and branches of various deciduous trees infested with fungi, mainly oak (Quercus), beech (Fagus), chestnut (Castanea) and hazel (Corylus). Most of the discoveries are made from branches of oak in the presence of the fungus False Turkey Tail (Stereum hirsutum). In Germany the occurrences are rare and scattered and are centered in the southwest and west of Germany. Abdera quadrifasciata is regarded as vulnerable (RL 3). (CB)

Anisoplia villosa (Goeze, 1777)
Anisoplia villosa
The 10 to 11 mm large leaf chafer Anisoplia villosa (family Scarabaeidae) is one of only two representatives of the genus currently recorded in Germany, which comprises slightly above 50 species in Eurasia. It is most speciose in the southeastern Mediterranean region and in the Caucasus. The center of the distribution of Anisoplia villosa is located in southwest Europe, in Central Europe the species in limited to xerothermic slopes. It ranges from the Iberian Pensinsula over Southern and Central France, southern Europe, Germany, Austria, Switzerland to Poland, The Czech Republic, Slovakia and Romania. The beetles can be found on the spikes of cereals and grasses during the blossom. The diurnal beetles hide in the ground at night. The larvae prefer sandy soil and feed on the roots of various grasses. In Germany, Anisoplia villosa is regarded as endangered (RL 2). (CB)

Chlorophorus varius (Müll., 1766)
Chlorophorus varius
The 8 to 14 mm large longhorn beetle Chlorophorus varius (family Cerambycidae) is one of currently four species of the genus Chlorophorus in Germany. The stenotopic, thermophilous species ranges from Southern, Central and Eastern Europe to Asia, Minor, the Caucasus, North Iran, Transcaucasia and Western Siberia. The beetles live on meadows and at the edges of forests in warm habitats. The adults can be found at warm slopes, in vineyards, on sun-exposed edges of forests and waysides on umbellifers. The larvae develop in a 2-3-year cycle in 2 to 5 cm thick dead or dry branches of various deciduous trees, among them horse chestnut, elm, maple, alder, ash and others. In Germany, recent records are known from the southwest and a few regions in the east. Chlorophorus varius is regarded as critically endangered (RL 1). (CB)

Enedreutes sepicola (F., 1792)
Enedreutes sepicola
The 2.5 to 5 mm large Enedreutes sepicola belongs to the speciose fungus weevils (family Anthribidae), which comprises almost 4000 species worldwide. Their center of gravity is the tropical region. In Europe, only 60 species are known to occur. Enedreutes sepicola is distributed throughout Europe. In Germany, is was the only species of the genus until a recent record of E. hilaris at the North Rhine (Reißmann, i.l.). The stenotopic, thermophilous and silvicolous species can be found from April to September in dry oak forests. The beetle develops in dead, fungi-infested branches of various trees, among them beech, European ash and oak, where the latter is preferred. In Germany the species is recorded from all Federal States and is regarded as not endangered. (CB)

Rhinoncus albicinctus Gyll., 1836
Rhinoncus albicinctus
The 3.1 to 3.8 mm large weevil Rhinoncus albicintus (family Curculionidae) shows a very specialized lifestyle. It develops only in the aquatic form of the longroot smartweed Persicaria amphibia. It can be found in small, stagnant waterbodies and oxbow lakes of larger rivers on the inflorescence of the host plant sticking out of the water. While the land form of the host plant is much more common, and can be found on muddy riverbanks very easily, the weevil is never present on it. The larvae bore in the stem and pupate there. In midsummer, the new generation hatches and hibernates at the water edge under plant detritus, where it can be found much easier, than on the aquatic form of the host plant, which is usually difficult to access. The species occurs from Western and Central Europe to Russia. In Germany, records are quite rare and R. albicintus is regarded as endangered (RL 2). (MS)

Oreina alpestris (Schumm., 1843)
Oreina alpestris
The 7 to 11 mm large leaf beetle Oreina alpestris (family Chrysomelidae) is closely related with the speciose genus Chrysolina. The characteristics for the separation of the two genera are gradual and not fully selective. Most representatives of the genus require dissection for determination of the species. Oreina alpestris prefers forests of the mountain range of Europe, with the exception of Fennoscandia. They live on various plants of the parsley family (Apiaceae), where both beetles and larvae feed on the leaves, among others cow parsley (Anthriscus sylvestris), hairy chervil (Chaerophyllum hirsutum), Alpine Sow-thistle (Cicerbita alpina) and hedge-leaved adenostyle (Adenostyles alliariae). In the western, northern and eastern part of Germany the species is missing in the lowland. It is regarded as not endangered. (CB)

Bembidion tibiale (Duft., 1812)
Bembidion tibiale
The ground beetle Bembidion tibiale (family Carabidae) is a typical dweller of the water edges of shady mountain creeks. The stenotopic, hygrophilous and ripicolous animals are approximately 5.3 to 6.8 mm large and of metallic green color. They can be found among shingle alongside creeks, often in great abundance. From the similar sister species Bembidion tibiale, which is found in the same habitats they are best distinguished by inspection of the aedoeagus of the male. The species is known to occur from Northern Europe (Scotland, Norway) over Western and Central Europe to Asia Minor and to the Caucasus. It lives in the montane to alpine zone. In Germany, the species is missing in the north, but is common in the south and is regarded as not endangered in the Red List. (FB)

Anthrenus scrophulariae (L., 1758)
Anthrenus scrophulariae
The 2 to 3.8 mm large common carpet beetle Anthrenus scrophulariae (family Dermestidae) is in our fauna one of six species of the genus Anthrenus, which comprises approx. 200 species worldwide. Initially originating from the Palearctic, Anthrenus scrophulariae is today of cosmopolitan distribution, but is more common in north temperate regions. The beetles feed on pollen and nectar, whereas the larvae feed on substrates containing keratin or chitin. Hence, the larvae can be found outdoors on dead insects, hair, feathers, but also in homes as a pest on fur, carpets, wool and in museums as serious pest in collections. The best way to prevent infestations is to protect its food source. This is achieved by good sanitation practices such as dusting and vacuuming. When infestations are localized, non-chemical methods can be used to eliminate them. Extreme cold and heat for several hours will kill the larvae on infested goods. (CB)

Sinodendron cylindricum (L., 1758)
Sinodendron cylindricum
The 12 to 16 mm large Rhinoceros Beetle Sinodendron cylindricum (family Lucanidae) is the only representative of the genus in our fauna. In the Palearctic it comprises four species, of which one also occurs in the Nearctic. Both genders wear a horn on their heads, which is larger and with yellow hairs on the rear side in the male. The distribution ranges from Northern Spain of entire Europe (with the exception of the far North and South) to Western Siberia. The beetle can be found in old, deciduous forests from the planar to the subalpine zone. The beetle develops in beech, occasionally in other deciduous trees. After a 2-year development, the larvae pupate in summer. The beetles hatch in autumn, hibernate in the pupal chamber and appear in the summer of the following year. In Germany, Sinodendron cylindricum has been recorded from all Federal States but is regarded as vulnerable (RL 3). (CB)

Ips sexdentatus (Boerner, 1767)
Ips sexdentatus
The 5.5 to 7.5 mm large six-toothed bark beetle Ips sexdentatus (family Scolytidae) is one of six species of the genus Ips in our fauna, which comprises about 40 species worldwide, mainly in the northern hemisphere. Ips sexdentatus occurs in Europe and Asia and is regarded as forestry pest. It attacks mainly Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), occasionally other conifers. Attacks are initiated by the males, who construct nuptial chambers under the bark and attract several females by emitting pheromones. Young larvae feed in galleries perpendicular to the egg chamber. The number of generations depends on climate and ranges from one per year north of the Arctic Circle to 4-5 in the Mediterranean region. The control of outbreaks is very difficult thus the prevention of outbreaks is emphasized. Unhealthy and wind-thrown trees, as well as slash, should be quickly removed and processed. (CB)

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