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Text © K. Reißmann, T. Hörren, M. Stern and C. Benisch


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15.05.2015
Lymexylon navale (L., 1758)
Lymexylon navale
The 7 to 16 mm timberworm beetle Lymexylon navale (family Lymexylonidae) is the only representative of the genus in Germany, with only five species worldwide. The female exhibits a black head and a red-brown pronotum and elytra. The elytra of the male are often blackened and the third article of the maxillary palps is enlarged and branched. The stenotopic and silvicolous beetles develop in ailing deciduous trees and felled timber logs, mainly oak. They are considered a serious pest of oak. The beetles can be found in old deciduous forests and on timber storage yards, where the swarm during the warm afternoon hours. Contrary to other Lymexylonidae they do not cultivate fungi in their burrows. In Germany, Lymexylon navale is recorded from most Federal States and is regarded as vulnerable (RL 3). (CB)

08.05.2015
Opilo mollis (L., 1758)
Opilo mollis
The 9 to 13 mm large checkered beetle Opilo mollis (family Cleridae) is the most common species of the genus in Germany. It can be distinguished from its very similar sister species O. domesticus by the shape of the pronotum and the puncture of the elytra. Our third species, O. pallidus lives acrodendric on old oaks and is rarely recorded. The genus Opilo is of palearctic and oriental origin, but many representatives are cosmopolitan today through transport, among them O. mollis. From the Palearctic, 27 species have been described. The eurytopic species lives in forests, at the edges of forests, in parks and gardens on old coniferous and deciduous wood. Both beetles and larvae are predaceous and feed woodboring insects. In Germany, O. mollis is recorded from almost all Federal States and is not regarded as endangered. (CB)

01.05.2015
Trissemus antennatus (Aube, 1833)
Trissemus antennatus
The 1.7 to 1.9 mm large short-winged mold beetle Trissemus antennatus (family Pselaphidae) is the only representative of the genus on Germany and can be easily recognized by the conspicuous club of the antenna, which is the origin of scientific name of the species. The sister species T. impressus has been meanwhile transferred into genus Fagniezia. In the western Palearctic 20 species have been described, thereof 7 occur in Europe. The stenotopic, hygrophilous species is known to occur in South Germany, France, Italy and on Corsica and Elba. The beetles live in swamps and on the muddy edges of waters. Both beetles and larvae are predaceous and feed on small insects in the moss or leaf litter. In Germany, Trissemus antennatus is only recorded from Baden and the Palatinate and is regarded as critically endangered (RL 1). (CB)

24.04.2015
Paederidus ruficollis (F., 1781)
Paederidus ruficollis
The 6.5 to 8 mm large rove beetle Paederidus ruficollis (family Staphylinidae) is one of two quite similar species of the genus in Germany. Its sister species P. rubrothoracicus is slightly larger (8 to 9.5 mm) and exhibits a dark blue metallic abdomen, whereas in P. ruficollis the abdomen is black with only a faint blue metallic shine. In Europe, four species are known. The stenotopic, psammophilous species ranges from North Africa over Europe to Asia Minor and Iran. The gregarious beetles can be found on sandy and gravelly edges of rivers and lakes, where they move swiftly in the sunshine. The beetles are predaceous and feed on other insects. In Germany, recent records are known from many Federal States with exception of the East. Paederidus ruficollis is not regarded as endangered. (CB)

17.04.2015
Hetaerius ferrugineus (Ol., 1789)
Hetaerius ferrugineus
The 1.5 to 2 mm large clown beetle Hetaerius ferrugineus (family Histeridae) is the only representative of the genus in Europe. Worldwide, about 30 species have been described, most of them from the Nearctic. The species is distributed from the southern part of Northern Europe to South Europe and the Caucasus. The myrmecophilous species lives in warm habitats, river meadows, heathland and arid grassland in the nests of various ant species. The beetles feed on dead and sick ants. Most of the time, the ants show indifferent behavior towards the beetle. In the case of attacks, the beetle feigns death with its legs and antennae closely pressed to its body. The ants then carry the beetle around, lick it and finally release it. In Germany, the species is widespread, but not common. It is regarded as vulnerable (RL ,3). (CB)

10.04.2015
Haliplus confinis Steph., 1828
Haliplus confinis
The 2.3 to 3.7 mm large crawling water beetle Haliplus confinis (family Haliplidae) is of short navicular shape. It is one of 30 representatives of the genus in Europe, of which 18 occur in Germany. The beetle lives in clean stagnant waters or quiet streams, where they feed on algae and plant parts. The stenotopic species is distributed from North and Central Europe to Siberia and has been recorded China lately. Like all Haliplidae H. confinis is a poor swimmer. Unlike the representatives of family Dytiscidae they use an alternate motion of legs and prefer rather to crawl on water plants than to swim, a behavior, which gave the family its vernacular name. The beetles are able to fly and reach suitable waters in this way. In Germany, the species is recorded from almost all Federal States but is regarded as vulnerable (RL 3). (CB)

03.04.2015
Cylindera germanica L., 1758
Cylindera germanica
The German Tiger beetle Cylindera germanica (family Carabidae) is one of only two species of the genus in Europe. It is known to occur in Europe and Asia. It prefers calcareous and semi-arid grassland, where the larvae develop in self-dug burrows in loamy or marly soil during two years. The populations of this xerophilous species have declined dramatically during the last decades and the beetle is now facing extinction in Germany (RL 1). Root cause for its decline is the loss of suitable habitats with sparse vegetation and open spots. These types of microhabitats are found in extensive agriculture, which has declined during the last decades, also on military training areas, which are rapidly overgrown by vegetation, once military training stops. Also eutrophication of calcareous grassland through immission of nitrogen compounds plays a role. (CB)

27.03.2015
Platydema violaceum (F., 1790)
Platydema violaceum
The darkling beetle Platydema violaceum (family Tenebrionidae) occurs from the southern part of North Europe over Central and South Europe and reaches the Caucasus in the East. In Germany, the stenotopic, mycetophilous species has been recorded throughout the country, although recent records are missing from Westphalia. The development takes place in Jew's ear (Auricularia auricula-judae), a saprophytic fungus mainly growing on elderberry (Sambucus), but also on various other deciduous trees, like beech (Fagus), birch (Betula) and elm (Ulmus). The beetle can be found throughout the year under the bark of deciduous trees, especially during the winter. While 50 years ago the species was very rare most regions in Germany, it has fortunately regained some territory over the recent decades. (TH)

20.03.2015
Larinus beckeri Petri, 1907
Larinus beckeri
The 6 to 8 mm large weevil Larinus beckeri (family Curculionidae) is one of seven quite similar species of the genus Larinus in Germany. It can be recognized by the rounded oval body shape and the relatively long and narrow snout. It ranges from Europe to Siberia, however, its exact range is not fully known. Larinus beckeri lives exclusively on knapweed species (Centaurea) in the lowlands, whereas the closely related sister species Larinus jaceae also uses various thistle species as host plant, preferably in the low mountain range. The larva develops and pupates in the flower. The beetles hatch starting July and hibernate. In Germany, Larinus beckeri is missing in the North and in the East and according to Rheinheimer/Hassler (2010) is regarded as endangered (RL 2). (CB)

13.03.2015
Timarcha tenebricosa (F., 1775)
Timarcha tenebricosa
The 12 to 18 mm large bloody-nosed beetle Timarcha tenebricosa (family Chrysomelidae) is one of three species in the genus in Germany. Worldwide more than 100 species have been described from three subgenera, most of them in the Palearctic, a few in the Nearctic. The eurytopic, herbicolous Timarcha tenebricosa occurs in Southern and Central Europe. It prefers dry edges of forests and meadows, sunny meadows alongside rivers and creeks, dry slopes and vineyards. The oligophagous species develops on bedstraws (Galium). When disturbed, they exude a bright orange fluid from their mouth, hence their common name. The male exhibits enlarged tarsi, which allow it to cling firmly to the female when mating. In Germany, records are only known from the South and the West and the species is regarded as vulnerable (RL 3). (CB)

06.03.2015
Leptura aurulenta (F., 1792)
Leptura aurulenta
The 13 to 18 mm large golden haired longhorn beetle Leptura aurulenta (family Cerambycidae) is one of five representatives of the genus in Germany. It can be potentially confused with its sister species Leptura quadrifasciata, which shows completely black legs. The stenotopic, thermophilous species occurs in Northwest Africa, South and Central Europe. It prefers sunny edges of forests and glades in the colline zone. Larval development takes place in trunks and rootstocks of dead deciduous trees, especially beech, but also oak, willow, poplar, alder, birch and chestnut. The adult beetles appear from June to August on umbellifers. They are quite agile in the sunlight and are able fliers. In Germany, the species is limited to the South and the West. It is regarded as endangered (RL 2). (CB)

27.02.2015
Corticeus fasciatus F., 1790
Corticeus fasciatus
The 3 to 3.2 mm large darkling beetle Corticeus fasciatus (family Tenebrionidae) is one of nine representatives of genus Corticeus currently recorded from Germany. The stenotopic, silvicolous species ranges from North Africa over South Europe to the southern part of North Europe and in the adjacent East Europe. The beetles prefer old deciduous forests, especially dry oak forests. They live on parts of oak trunk destitute of bark in in the galleries of anobiid beetles (Anobiidae) and timberworm beetles (Lymexylonidae). Formerly regarded as exclusively predaceous, they are meanwhile thought to be saprophagous and only facultative predators. The larval development presumably takes two years under the bark of the trees. In Germany, the species is recorded from most Federal States, but regarded as an Urwald relic species and endangered (RL 2). (CB)

20.02.2015
Hallomenus binotatus (Quensel, 1790)
Hallomenus binotatus
The 3.5 to 6 mm large false darkling beetle Hallomenus binotatus (family Melandryidae) is the more common representative of the two species of the genus in Germany. Meanwhile, the entire subfamily Hallomeninae has been moved into family Tetratomidae. Hallomenus binotatus occurs from North Spain over Central Europe including the British Isles to Bosnia. The stenotopic, mycetobiont species lives in deciduous and mixed forests. It develops on various bracket fungi, among others of the genera Polyporus, Phellinus, Boletus, Pleurotus, Sparassis and Armillaria on stumps and trunks of deciduous trees, e.g. oak (Quercus), beech (Fagus), birch (Betula), willow (Salix) and conifers (Picea, Pinus, Abies). The species is crepuscular and nocturnal. In Germany, there are recent records from all Federal States and the species is not endangered. (CB)

13.02.2015
Phrissotrichum rugicolle (Germ., 1817)
Phrissotrichum rugicolle
The 1.9 to 2.5 mm large Apionid weevil Phrissotrichum rugicolle (family Apionidae) is the only representative of the genus in Germany. It is easily distinguished from all other species of the family in our fauna by the bristle-like pubescence of the elytra. The stenotopic, xerothermophilous species is known to occur from France over Italy and Central Europe to Hungary. In Central Europe it lives only in habitats with a markedly warm microclimate, e.g. on warm slopes, sun-exposed banks, rocky and calcareous grassland on calcareous soil or gypsum. The oligophagous beetles develop on rock rose (Helianthemum) and needle sunrose (Fumana). In Germany, recent records are only known from the southern half of the country and Phrissotrichum rugicolle is regarded as very rare and endangered (RL 2). (CB)

06.02.2015
Rhynchites bacchus (L., 1758)
Rhynchites bacchus
The 4.2 to 6.8 mm large peach weevil Rhynchites bacchus (family Rhynchitidae) is one of six representatives of the genus in Germany. The thermophilous species occurs from North Africa over Europe to the Caucasus, Turkmenistan and North Iran. The beetle can be found in orchards, at waysides, in sunny river meadows and at the edges of forests. The oligophagous beetles live on trees of the Rosaceae family and are pests of economic significance in plum, apricot and apple. The female deposits its eggs from May to August in a chamber in the fruit. The larvae feed on the fruit pulp. After 4 to 8 weeks they leave the fruit and pupate in the ground. The new generation hatches in autumn and hibernates in the pupal chamber. In Germany, the species is mainly recorded from the southern half and ist not endangered. (CB)

30.01.2015
Baris analis (Ol., 1790)
Baris analis
The 2 to 3.5 mm large weevil Baris analis (family Curculionidae) is among the smallest and rarest representatives of the 12 species of the genus Baris in Germany. It is easily recognized by the conspicuous red last third of the elytra. The species is known to occur in Europe from the British Isles to Greek, in the east it reaches Siberia. Baris analis lives wet grassland and at the edges of ponds and rivers on common fleabane (Pulicaria dysenterica). The larvae develop in the lower parts of the stem and in the roots. They pupate in the galleries and hibernate as imagines. The species is very local and rare. In Germany there are only a few records from Saxony-Anhalt and Baden and according to Rheinheimer/Hassler (2010) Baris analis is regarded as critically endangered (RL 1). (CB)

23.01.2015
Anthribus albinus (L., 1758)
Anthribus albinus
The 6 to 12 mm large fungus weevil Anthribus albinus (family Anthribidae) is the only representative of the genus in Germany. The stenotopic, silvicolous species occurs from North Africa over Europe and Asia Minor to Siberia. The beetles can be found in deciduous forests on old branches and trunks of deciduous trees infested with fungi, especially beech (Fagus), but also alder (Alnus), occasionally hazel (Corylus), birch (Betula), oak (Quercus), elm (Ulmus), lime (Tilia), willow (Salix), rowan (Sorbus) and hawthorn (Crataegus), additionally in stumps and on cord wood. Beetles and larvae feed on fungi. The larvae gnaw galleries in the dead wood, in which they also pupate. With its distinctive coloration, A. albinus camouflages itself as bird dropping. In Germany, the species is present in all Federal States and is common. (CB)

16.01.2015
Hispa atra L., 1767
Hispa atra
The 3 to 4 mm large prickly leaf beetle Hispa atra (family Chrysomelidae) is the only representative of the genus in Germany and in Europe. Worldwide the tribe Hispini comprises more than 600 species in 20 genera in Europe, Africa, Asia and Australia. The eurytopic, xerothermophilous Hispa atra is of palearctic distribution from Europe to Mongolia, Tibet and China. The beetles prefer dry, sparse grassland, calcareous and semi-arid grassland, heathland, dry slopes, dry meadows and lynchets as well as sandy river meadows, banks and quarries. The larvae are miners in various grasses, especially meadow-grass (Poa), crested-wheat grasses (Agropyron), oats (Avena) and catstail (Phleum). In Germany, the species is recorded from all Federal States and is not endangered. It can be easily found by using a sweep net. (CB)

09.01.2015
Chilocorus renipustulatus (Scriba, 1850)
Chilocorus renipustulatus
Together with its sister Species Chilocorus bipustulatus, the 4 to 5 mm large kidney-spot ladybird Chilocorus renipustulatus (family Coccinellidae) represents the genus Chilocorus in our fauna. Worldwide, the genus comprises more than 80 species in the Holarctic, Oriental and Afrotropical Region. Several species are of economic importance as biocontrol agents. The palearctic species Chilocorus bipustulatus is known to occur from North Africa over Europe to the Caucasus and Siberia. It lives in wet habitats on the stems of various deciduous trees (preferably alder (Alnus), ash (Fraxinus) and dogwood (Cornus)) and preys on scale insects on the bark of the trees, especially Chionaspis salicis. In Germany, recent records are known from all Federal States and the species is common. (CB)

02.01.2015
Cynaeus angustus (Leconte, 1851)
Cynaeus angustus
The 5.5 to 6.5 mm long Larger Black Flour Beetle Cynaeus angustus (family Tenebrionidae) is the only representative of the genus in Germany. The species originates from the Sonora desert in the southwest of the US and Mexico, respectively, where two more similar sister species are present. They live on debris of yucca and agave plants. Since the 1970s the species expanded quickly to the East as a pest in grain storage and on cotton gin trash. Since the mid of the 1990s first records of introduced specimen have been made from Germany and other European countries. The beetles can be found from June to September on chaff and waste of grains production and compost. In Germany, recent records are known from Baden, the Palatinate and Thuringia. The expansive species is not endangered. (CB)

26.12.2014
Emus hirtus (L., 1758)
Emus hirtus
The 18 to 28 mm large rove beetle Emus hirtus (family Staphylinidae) is probably the most beautiful rove beetle in our fauna and the only representative of the genus in Germany. The eurytopic, thermophilous species occurs throughout Europe, in the East till western Central Asia. It prefers near-natural meadows, especially on warm and dry slopes, sandy sun-exposed pastures and dry edges of forests. Both beetles and larvae are predaceous and live on fresh dung of horses and cattle, where they prey on imagines and larvae of dipterans and other beetles. The hairs of the imagines are water- and dirt-repellent, hence the beetles can dwell on fresh cow dung without getting stained. In Germany, populations fluctuate considerably and often the species disappears for several years from certain locations. It is regarded as endangered (RL 2). (CB)

19.12.2014
Rhagium bifasciatum F., 1775
Rhagium bifasciatum
The 12 to 22 mm large two-banded longhorn beetle Rhagium bifasciatum (family Cerambycidae) is one of four representatives of the genus in Germany. The genus is of holarctic distribution and comprises 25 species. The stenotopic, silvicolous R. bifasciatum occurs from Europe of Asia Minor to the Caucasus. The beetles prefer deciduous and mixed forests from the lowlands to the mountain range. The 2-year larval development takes place in stumps and logs of spruce and pine, occasionally in deciduous trees like beech and oak. Contrary to its sister species, the larva of R. bifasciatum does not build a pupal chamber under the bark, but pupates in the rotten wood. The diurnal beetles can be found from late April on logs and branches and occasionally on blossoms. In Germany it is recorded from all regions and common. (CB)

12.12.2014
Lebia marginata (Fourcr., 1785)
Lebia marginata
The 3.8 to 5 mm large ground beetle Lebia marginata (family Carabidae) belongs to the rarest of the four firmly established representatives of the genus Lebia in Germany. The speciose genus is present in all ecozones and comprised more than 700 species in 17 subgenera. The eurytopic, xerophilous Lebia marginata occurs from southern Central Europe over South Europe to the Caucasus and Southwest Asia. The beetles can be found on shrubs and small trees at the sunny edges of forests and on clearings, preferably in the afternoon. The beetles prey on other small insects. In Germany recent records are only known from the southern half of the country and the species is quite rare, however at the places of discovery in their habitats their abundance is not particularly low. In Germany regarded as critically endangered (RL 1). (CB)

05.12.2014
Platycerus caraboides (L., 1758)
Platycerus caraboides
The 10 to 14 mm large stag beetle Platycerus caraboides (family Lucanidae) is one of two species of the genus in Germany. The stenotopic, silvicolous species occurs from the southern part of North Europe over Central Europe to West Asia. It is missing in the North of the British Isles and North Scandinavia as well as in South Spain, Greece and large parts of the Balkan. Platycerus caraboides prefers warm beech forests in the lowlands and in the colline zone up to 750 m ASL. The similar sister species P. caprea however prefers cool and humid habitats in the montane and subalpine zone. The beetles feed on leaves and buds of deciduous trees. The larval development takes 3 years and takes place in white-rotten wood of various deciduous trees. In Germany, Platycerus caraboides is known from all regions and rather common. (CB)

28.11.2014
Bruchus pisorum (L., 1758)
Bruchus pisorum
The 4 to 5 mm large pea weevil Bruchus pisorum (family Bruchidae) is one of 14 representatives of the genus in Germany and is today a cosmopolite. It is regarded as a major pest in pea cultivation. The female deposits its eggs on the outside of the pods. The larvae feed through the pod and develop inside the seed pod, where each larva digs itself into a pea seed where it later pupates. In this way, the beetle gets into storages. The infestation of the peas can be considerable. There are reports from the first world war, that pea soups from field kitchens where appreciated by the troops as particularly "tasty" due to the small pieces of "bacon" in them. Of course, these "soup additions" were the larvae of Bruchus pisorum. In Germany, there are recent records from the West and the East. (CB)


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