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Text © K. Reißmann, T. Hörren, M. Stern, F. Bötzl and C. Benisch

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Oreina alpestris (Schumm., 1843)
Oreina alpestris
The 7 to 11 mm large leaf beetle Oreina alpestris (family Chrysomelidae) is closely related with the speciose genus Chrysolina. The characteristics for the separation of the two genera are gradual and not fully selective. Most representatives of the genus require dissection for determination of the species. Oreina alpestris prefers forests of the mountain range of Europe, with the exception of Fennoscandia. They live on various plants of the parsley family (Apiaceae), where both beetles and larvae feed on the leaves, among others cow parsley (Anthriscus sylvestris), hairy chervil (Chaerophyllum hirsutum), Alpine Sow-thistle (Cicerbita alpina) and hedge-leaved adenostyle (Adenostyles alliariae). In the western, northern and eastern part of Germany the species is missing in the lowland. It is regarded as not endangered. (CB)

Bembidion tibiale (Duft., 1812)
Bembidion tibiale
The ground beetle Bembidion tibiale (family Carabidae) is a typical dweller of the water edges of shady mountain creeks. The stenotopic, hygrophilous and ripicolous animals are approximately 5.3 to 6.8 mm large and of metallic green color. They can be found among shingle alongside creeks, often in great abundance. From the similar sister species Bembidion tibiale, which is found in the same habitats they are best distinguished by inspection of the aedoeagus of the male. The species is known to occur from Northern Europe (Scotland, Norway) over Western and Central Europe to Asia Minor and to the Caucasus. It lives in the montane to alpine zone. In Germany, the species is missing in the north, but is common in the south and is regarded as not endangered in the Red List. (FB)

Anthrenus scrophulariae (L., 1758)
Anthrenus scrophulariae
The 2 to 3.8 mm large common carpet beetle Anthrenus scrophulariae (family Dermestidae) is in our fauna one of six species of the genus Anthrenus, which comprises approx. 200 species worldwide. Initially originating from the Palearctic, Anthrenus scrophulariae is today of cosmopolitan distribution, but is more common in north temperate regions. The beetles feed on pollen and nectar, whereas the larvae feed on substrates containing keratin or chitin. Hence, the larvae can be found outdoors on dead insects, hair, feathers, but also in homes as a pest on fur, carpets, wool and in museums as serious pest in collections. The best way to prevent infestations is to protect its food source. This is achieved by good sanitation practices such as dusting and vacuuming. When infestations are localized, non-chemical methods can be used to eliminate them. Extreme cold and heat for several hours will kill the larvae on infested goods. (CB)

Sinodendron cylindricum (L., 1758)
Sinodendron cylindricum
The 12 to 16 mm large Rhinoceros Beetle Sinodendron cylindricum (family Lucanidae) is the only representative of the genus in our fauna. In the Palearctic it comprises four species, of which one also occurs in the Nearctic. Both genders wear a horn on their heads, which is larger and with yellow hairs on the rear side in the male. The distribution ranges from Northern Spain of entire Europe (with the exception of the far North and South) to Western Siberia. The beetle can be found in old, deciduous forests from the planar to the subalpine zone. The beetle develops in beech, occasionally in other deciduous trees. After a 2-year development, the larvae pupate in summer. The beetles hatch in autumn, hibernate in the pupal chamber and appear in the summer of the following year. In Germany, Sinodendron cylindricum has been recorded from all Federal States but is regarded as vulnerable (RL 3). (CB)

Ips sexdentatus (Boerner, 1767)
Ips sexdentatus
The 5.5 to 7.5 mm large six-toothed bark beetle Ips sexdentatus (family Scolytidae) is one of six species of the genus Ips in our fauna, which comprises about 40 species worldwide, mainly in the northern hemisphere. Ips sexdentatus occurs in Europe and Asia and is regarded as forestry pest. It attacks mainly Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), occasionally other conifers. Attacks are initiated by the males, who construct nuptial chambers under the bark and attract several females by emitting pheromones. Young larvae feed in galleries perpendicular to the egg chamber. The number of generations depends on climate and ranges from one per year north of the Arctic Circle to 4-5 in the Mediterranean region. The control of outbreaks is very difficult thus the prevention of outbreaks is emphasized. Unhealthy and wind-thrown trees, as well as slash, should be quickly removed and processed. (CB)

Rhynchites cupreus (L., 1758)
Rhynchites cupreus
The 3.5 to 4.5 mm large plum borer Rhynchites cupreus (family Rhynchitidae) belongs to a genus that has seen many taxonomic changes over the recent years. Meanwhile its former representatives are counted into the genera Tatianaerynchites, Involvulus (here the species cupreus), Pseudomechoris, Teretriorhynchites and Rhynchites. Rhynchites cupreus is known to occur from Europe (without the British Isles) to Siberia. The eurytopic, oligophagous species lives on various trees and shrubs of the Rosaceae family, in particular plum, cherry and blackthorn in cool and shady habitats. The can cause damage in plum and cherry cultivation. However, due to the usually small abundances, the economic impact is limited. In Germany, Rhynchites cupreus is recorded from all Federal states and is not endangered. (CB)

Tillus elongatus (L., 1758)
Tillus elongatus
The 6 to 9 mm large checkered beetle Tillus elongatus (family Cleridae) is the only representative of the genus Tillus in our fauna. The subfamily Tillinae comprises about 550 species worldwide, they are most diverse in the epiequatorial Neotropics. Tillus elongatus shows a marked sexual dimorphism: While the male is all black, the female is slightly larger and exhibits a red pronotum. The thermophilous species occurs in Europe including the British Isles to the Caucasus and lives in old deciduous and mixed forests and parks. Its larvae prey on the development stages of other wood dwelling insects, in particular the Fan-bearing Wood-borer Ptilinus pectinicornis. In Germany, Tillus elongates is widespread and recorded from all Federal States, but not everywhere common. It is regarded as vulnerable (RL 3). (CB)

Batrisus formicarius Aubé, 1833
Batrisus formicarius
With its body length of 3.1 to 3.5 mm, the short-winged mold beetle Batrisus formicarius (family Pselaphidae) is already among the larger representatives of the family in our fauna. In Europe, the genus comprises only two, in the Palearctic totally ten species. Batrisus formicarius is known to occur in Central and Southern Europe. It can be found in deciduous forests, parks and river meadows. It lives in the nests of the brown wood ant Lasius brunneus in decaying wood and in wood detritus in hollow trees, as well as under loose bark and moss on trees and logs. Batrisus formicarius has been recorded from almost all Federal states with the exception on Schleswig-Holstein and the Lower Elbe region. The species is not endangered but is not recorded very often and is regarded as rather rare. (CB)

Otiorhynchus fullo (Schrk., 1781)
Otiorhynchus fullo
With almost 1000 species, the weevil genus Otiorhynchus is by far the most speciose genus of the weevils (family Curculionidae) in Europe. In Central Europe, about 170 Otiorhynchus species are known. Many of them are restricted to extremely small localities in the mountain range. The 5 to 8 mm large Otiorhynchus fullo however, is mainly a eastern European species of the lower altitudes, which reaches the western boundary of its distribution range in Germany. To that effect, it is mainly recorded in the eastern Federal States of Germany, although some records from Hesse and the Palatinate have been published. The thermophilous species lives on various deciduous trees and shrubs, e.g. blackthorn and hawthorn. The larva develops in the soil. Otiorhynchus fullo is not particularly common, still it is not regarded as endangered. (MS)

Donacia reticulata Gyll., 1817
Donacia reticulata
The 7.5 to 11 mm large reed beetle Donacia reticulata (family Chrysomelidae) is one of approx. 20 representatives of the Holarctic genus in our fauna. Globally, Donacia comprises approx. 80 species, which are sometimes not easy to determine. Donacia reticulate is known to occur in Northwest Africa and Southwest Europe (Portugal, Spain, France, Netherlands, Italy, Slovenia, Austria and Croatia). Until recently, in Germany only existed old records from Bavaria and the species was regarded as missing or extinct (RL 0). Meanwhile, it has been newly discovered in the North Rhine region. The stenotopic, hygrophilous and graminicolous species lives on simplestem bur-reed (Sparganium erectum) and on common bulrush (Typha latifolia), some authors also cite sedges (Carex) as host plant. (CB)

Megopis scabricornis (Scop., 1763)
Megopis scabricornis
The 30 to 50 mm large longhorn beetle Megopis scabricornis (family Cerambycidae) is among the largest and very rare beetle species and the only representative of genus Megopis in our fauna. Its distribution ranges from Northern Spain over the southern part of Central Europe to Asia minor, the Caucasus and Iran. The thermophilous urwald relic species is polyphagous. Its larvae develop in decaying, moist wood of dying deciduous trees (e.g. beech, lime, poplar apple, cherry and horse chestnut) in deciduous forests, parks, alleys, traditional orchards and river meadows. The beetles appear from June to August. They are crepuscular and nocturnal and are attracted to light. In Germany, known records are mainly from the southwest with a few scattered records from Brandenburg and Saxony. It is regarded as critically endangered (RL 1). (CB)

Omphalapion buddebergi (Bedel, 1885)
Omphalapion buddebergi
The 1.9 to 2.4 mm large apionid weevil Omphalapion buddebergi (family Apionidae) is the rarest species of the four representative of the genus in our fauna. In the Palearctic, the genus comprises about 10 species. Omphalapion buddebergi is mainly recorded from Germany, with further records from Spain, Austria, Hungary and Bulgaria. The stenotopic, xerothermophilous species lives on calcareous and semiarid grassland, in fallow vineyards and quarries. It is monophagous and develops in dyer's chamomile (Anthemis tinctoria). The larvae feed in the flower buds. In Germany, records are known from Bavaria, the Palatinate, Rhineland, Hesse, Thuringia and Saxony-Anhalt. The populations of Omphalapion buddebergi have been in heavy decline. Hence, the species is regarded as endangered (RL 2). (CB)

Ampedus sanguinolentus (Schrk., 1776)
Ampedus sanguinolentus
The 9.0 to 11.5 mm large click beetle Ampedus sanguinolentus (family Elateridae) is among the more common representatives of the genus Ampedus, which comprises close to 30 species in our fauna and up to 300 species worldwide. In its nominal form the red elytra exhibit a black mark along the suture, which can be missing. Ampedus sanguinolentus is known to occur from France over Central and the southern part of North Europe to Siberia. The beetles live in forests from the plain to higher elevations in the low mountain range. The predaceous larva develops under the bark or in the outer layer of decaying wood of deciduous trees infested with white rot fungi. The beetle hatches in summer, but hibernates in the wood and emerges only in the following spring. In our fauna, Ampedus sanguinolentus is not regarded as endangered. (CB)

Hydaticus transversalis (Pont., 1763)
Hydaticus transversalis
The 12 to 13 mm large diving beetle Hydaticus transversalis (family Dytiscidae) is among the common representatives of the genus Hydaticus, which comprises five species in our fauna and approx. 100 species worldwide in the Palearctic, Afrotropical region and in the Nearctic. Hydaticus transversalis is known to occur from Europe (without the far north and south) to Asia minor and the Caucasus. The eurytopic beetles live in stagnant, eutrophic water bodies, e.g. densely vegetated lakes, ponds and oxbow lakes. The adult beetles hibernate and mate in spring. Larval development is concluded in summer. Both beetles and larvae are predaceous and feed on other small organisms. Hydaticus transversalis is recorded from almost all Federal States and is not regarded as endangered. (CB)

Caenorhinus interpunctatus (Steph., 1831)
Caenorhinus interpunctatus
The 2.5 to 3.4 tooth-nosed snout beetle Caenorhinus interpunctatus (family Rhynchitidae) is the rarest species of the genus Caenorhinus, which has seen substantial taxonomic changes (Legalov, 2003). The representatives of the former genus are meanwhile part of the genera Schoenitemnus, Neocoenorrhinus and – like C. interpunctatus – Neocoenorhinidius. The species is known to occur from Europe (without the far North) to Siberia. The beetles live on various oak species and seem to prefer cooler habitats. They can be found from April to June. Like C. aeneovirens they are believed to develop in young oak shoots. In Germany, the species is recorded from almost all regions and is not part of the Red List of endangered species. However, it is only rarely recorded and the actual endangerment is difficult to judge. (CB)

Tetratoma desmarestii Latr., 1807
Tetratoma desmarestii
The 3.5 to 4.2 mm large polypore fungus beetle Tetratoma desmarestii (family Tetratomidae) is the rarest representative of the genus in our fauna. In Europe, the genus comprises six, worldwide 22 species. The stenotopic, mycetophagous species is known to occur in North Africa, Southern, Western and Central Europe, and reaches the Caucasus in the east. It can be found in oak forests on various fungi, especially Peniophora quercina, but also on the smoky polypore (Bjerkandera adusta) and Stereum hirsutum. The larvae develop in the fungi, but leave them to pupate in the surrounding substrate. Tetratoma desmarestii is recorded from most Federal States with exception of the Eastern Germany, but is generally rare. In Germany, the species is regarded as critically endangered (RL 1). (CB)

Nacerdes melanura (L., 1758)
Nacerdes melanura
The 9 to 13 mm large wharf borer Nacerdes melanura (family Oedemeridae) is one of only two representatives of the genus in Germany, which comprises approx. 40 species worldwide. Originating from Europe, the species is meanwhile of cosmopolitan distribution in the temperate zone. The species is found in coastal areas. The larvae develop in old, damp wood undergoing fungal decay which is regularly submerged by a tidal flow. Since they attack timbers in ships, wharf pilings, wooden harbor and dock constructions they are regarded as pests. The short-lived adults appear between May and September with a peak in June. In Germany the species is mainly found in coastal areas although records from inland locations are known. In Germany, Nacerdes melanura is regarded as vulnerable (RL 3). (CB)

Biphyllus lunatus (F., 1792)
Biphyllus lunatus
The 3 to 3.3 mm large false skin beetle Biphyllus lunatus (family Biphyllidae) is the only representative of the genus in Germany, which comprises a total of four species in Europe. It is distinguished through a bright, zig-zag-shaped mark on the elytra. The stenotopic, mycetobiont species occurs in North Africa, Southern and Central Europe, in the East to Southern Siberia. The occurrences in Germany, Austria and the Czech Republic are quite scattered and only on the British Isles the species is somewhat more common. It lives and develops on the fungus King Alfred's Cake (Daldinia concentrica), which can be found on dead branches of various deciduous trees, mainly ash. The larvae feed on the mycelium and pupate in the ground. In Germany, recent records are only known from the North Rhine and the species is critically endangered (RL 1). (CB)

Cicindela maritima Dej., 1822
Cicindela maritima
The 10 to 13 mm large tiger beetle Cicindela maritima (family Carabidae) is one of six representatives of the genus in Germany, which comprises approx. 850 species worldwide. It can be distinguished from the similar C. hybrida by the strongly descending and narrow branch of the central band of the elytra. The psammophilous and halotolerant species occurs from Europe to Asia in littoral habitats (edges of rivers, lakes and shores), in Germany only on the salt-influenced shores of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. The diurnal beetles and their larvae are predaceous and feed on other insects. In Germany the species is regarded as endangered (RL 2) und is only recorded from Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Schleswig-Holstein, the Weser-Ems und the Lower Elbe region. The few occurrences are threatened by tourism and associated leisure activities. (CB)

Mogulones pallidicornis (Bris., 1860)
Mogulones pallidicornis
In early spring, when the ground of the humid and still defoliate beech forest is covered by blossoming wood anemone and spring fumewort, the inconspicuous blue flowers of the unspotted lungwort (Pulmonaria obscura) can be easily overlooked. Even more rarely, we can observe the tiny weevil Mogulones pallidicornis (family Curculionidae), which develops on unspotted lungwort. It can be found by targeted search in suitable habitats from March to early June, depending on how early the spring starts. Contrary to literature, the beetles can be found throughout the day, not only in the evening on their host plants which exhibit characteristic damage on the leaves caused by the feeding weevils. Mogules pallidicornis occurs from Central Europe to Siberia and from Sweden to Italy. In Germany the occurrences are scattered and the species is regarded as vulnerable (RL 3). (MS)

Meloe decorus Br.Er., 1832
Meloe decorus
The 12 to 20 mm large blister beetle Meloe decorus (family Meloidae) is one of currently ten reported representatives of the genus in Germany. Worldwide the genus comprises more than 150 species in 16 subgenera. Meloe decorus is of eastern palearctic distribution and does also occur in the Middle East and a few European countries from eastern France to the Balkan Peninsula. The stenotopic, thermophilous species lives on warm slopes, in quarries and sand pits, as well as levees from the lowlands to the colline zone. The adults feed on various plants. They show a complex courtship behavior, in which the male stimulates the female with fast movements of the antenna and the abdomen. The larvae develop in the nests of wild bee species, especially Andrena. In Germany Meloe decorus is limited to a few Federal States and is considered critically endangered (RL 1). (CB)

Phytobaenus amabilis Sahlb., 1834
Phytobaenus amabilis
The 2 to 2.8 mm large antlike leaf beetle Phytobaenus amabilis (family Aderidae) is the only member of the monotypic genus Phytobaenus worldwide. The Euro -Siberian species is distributed from Northern and Central Europe to Siberia and Japan. In Central Europe the species is scattered and extremely rare. In Germany it was considered lost (RL 0) for a long time until it was rediscovered in 2008 in the forest Bienwald (Rhineland-Palatinate). Meanwhile a few recent records are known from the Palatinate, Baden and Saxony-Anhalt. The stenotopic, silvicolous species prefers forest edges and clearings in old deciduous forests. The beetles can be found from May to July on old wood and on the vegetation near old trees. Most probably the development takes place in decaying hardwood. (CB)

Scaphidium quadrimaculatum Ol., 1790
Scaphidium quadrimaculatum
The 5 to 6 mm large rove beetle Scaphidium quadrimaculatum (family Staphylinidae) is the only representatives of the genus in Germany and can be easily recognized. Worldwide the genus Scaphidium comprises over 260 species with their main distribution area being the tropics. Scaphidium quadrimaculatum occurs from southern France through northern and central Europe to the Balkans and reaches the Altai Mountains in the east. The eurytopic, mycetophilous species lives in deciduous and mixed forests, at forest edges and in gardens. The beetles can be found on wood infested with fungi, on dead trees, rotting and fungus-infected twigs on the ground, on bracket fungi and in moss and leaf litter. Probably they feed on fungal mycelium. The adults hibernate. In Germany, the species is reported from all Federal States and is very common. (CB)

Atholus bimaculatus (L., 1758)
Atholus bimaculatus
The 3.5 to 6 mm large clown beetle Atholus bimaculatus (family Histeridae) is one of the four representatives of the genus in Germany. Worldwide the genus comprises over 70 species. Today Atholus bimaculatus is almost cosmopolitan. Originally from the Palaearctic region, the species is now widespread throughout the Nearctic and there are also records from the Afrotropical and Neotropical region. The eurytopic, stercoricolous species lives in fields, gardens, ruderal sites and in stables. The beetles and their larvae are found in feces, manure and compost heaps, on decaying plant matter. They are also reported from bird nests. The beetles are predators and feed on eggs and larvae of various dipterans. In Germany, the species is known to occur in all Federal States and is everywhere common. (CB)

Agonum sexpunctatum (L., 1758)
Agonum sexpunctatum
The 7 to 9 mm large ground beetle Agonum sexpunctatum (family Carabidae) is one of the numerous representatives of the genus, which is spread throughout the Holarctic with over 250 species. Agonum sexpunctatum is a western palearctic species of the temperate and boreal zone and is known to occur from Europe to Asia Minor, the Caucasus, Central Asia and Siberia. The eurytopic, moderately hygrophilous species can be found in forests, on the edges of fields, on meadows, bogs, heaths and ruderal sites from the lowlands to the mountain range. They prefer sunny and humid places. The females lay their eggs in summer. After one week, the larvae hatch. The development of the larvae takes 2 - 3 weeks. The beetles hibernate. In Germany Agonum sexpunctatum is present everywhere and mostly common. (CB)

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