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Text © K. Reißmann, T. Hörren, M. Stern and C. Benisch

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Ischnodes sanguinicollis (Panz., 1793)
Ischnodes sanguinicollis
The 8.5 to 11 mm large click beetle Ischnodes sanguinicollis (family Elateridae) is the only representative of the genus in Europe. It is known to occur in Southern, Western and Central Europe (including the British Isles), in the East in Asia minor, the Caucasus and Siberia. The stenotopic, silvicolous species is counted among the so called Urwald relict species und lives in old deciduous forests. The larva develops in tree hollows at the foot of trees, mainly oak and beech, with a large filling of wood detritus formed by the activity of other insects. The larva is predaceous and feeds on other insect larvae. For pupation it attaches itself to small pieces of wood in the detritus. The beetles swarm during the afternoon hours on warm day starting end of April. In Germany, Ischnodes sanguinicollis is very rare and is regarded as critically endangered (RL 1). (CB)

Cantharis lateralis L., 1758
Cantharis lateralis
The 5 to 7 mm large soldier beetle Cantharis lateralis (family Cantharidae) is one of 24 representatives of the genus in Germany. In Europe the genus comprises around 80 species. In our fauna, Cantharis lateralis can be distinguished from similar species by the double pubescence and the yellow margin of the elytra. Its distribution stretches from North Africa over Europe, Asia minor and the Caucasus to Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Afghanistan. The eurytopic species inhabits the edges of ponds and rivers and wet, boggy meadows. They can be found on flower umbels and low vegetation. The beetles prey on other insects but also feed on pollen. In Germany, Cantharis lateralis is recorded from all Federal States and is not endangered. (CB)

Acylophorus wagenschieberi Kiesw., 1850
Acylophorus wagenschieberi
The 7 to 9 mm large rove beetle Acylophorus wagenschieberi (family Staphylinidae) is one of only two representatives of the genus in Germany, which are easily recognized by a prolonged scape and the geniculate antennae. Acylophorus wagenschieberi is known to occur from the southern part of Northern Europe over Central Europe to Siberia. The stenotopic, tyrphobiont species is a typical inhabitant of raised and transitional bogs, which lives on wet peat moss (Sphagnum) and requires a constant, high water level. Larval development takes place in June and July. The generation appears end of July and is active until October, before it seeks a suitable wintering ground and hibernates. Due to declining habitats the species has become rare in Germany and is regarded as vulnerable (RL 3). (CB)

Agathidium nigripenne (F., 1792)
Agathidium nigripenne
The 2 to 2.7 mm large round fungus beetle Agathidium nigripenne (family Leiodidae) is one of close to 20 species of the genus Germany. Worldwide the genus is quite speciose and over the last years numerous new species have been named after public persons. Agathidium nigripenne is widespread in Europe and reaches beyond the polar circle. It lives in forests, mainly beech forests. The eurytopic, mycetophilous species can be found under bark, on rotting wood and in the leaf litter of forests. The beetles feed on slime molds (Eumycetozoa), but are also found on higher fungi (Basidiomycota). If they can directly feed on the latter remains to be clarified. If disturbed they can almost completely curl up into a ball. In Germany Agathidium nigripenne is widespread and everywhere common. (CB)

Sphaeridium scarabaeoides (L., 1758)
Sphaeridium scarabaeoides
The 5.5 to 7.5 mm large terrestrial water scavenger beetle Sphaeridium scarabaeoides (family Hydrophilidae) is one of four representatives of the genus in Germany. Worldwide the genus comprises only somewhat more than 40 species. It can be distinguished from its very similar sister species S. lunatum by the brighter and more contoured red mark on the shoulder. The eurytopic, coprophilous species is of palearctic distribution and has been introduced to North America, where it is meanwhile established. The beetles live in fresh dung of cow, horse and sheep in various habitats. The females deposit their eggs directly in the dung, protected by a cocoon spun around them. The larvae develop in the dung. In Germany, Sphaeridium scarabaeoides is widespread and everywhere very common. (CB)

Bembidion argenteolum Ahr., 1812
Bembidion argenteolum
The 6 to 7.5 mm large ground beetle Bembidion argenteolum (family Carabidae) is a representative of the exceedingly speciose genus Bembidion, which comprises more than 1200 species worldwide. Bembidion inhabits the northern Palearctic from Central and North Europe over Siberia to East Asia. Together with its similar sister species from the subgenus Bracteon, B. litorale and B. velox it lives on mud banks and near-natural immature soil alongside mid-sized and large flowing waters, habitats that usually found in dynamic floodplains. The larval development takes place in early summer in sandy substrate of the river banks. The beetles hibernate as imago. In Germany, Bembidion argenteolum is present in many Federal States, but due to its high habitat requirements it is generally rare and endangered (RL 2). (CB)

Cryptorhynchus lapathi (L., 1758)
Cryptorhynchus lapathi
The 5 to 8.5 mm large poplar and willow borer Cryptorhynchus lapathi (family Curculionidae) is the only representative of the genus in Germany. The speciose genus is globally present and in bad need of a thorough revision. Cryptorhynchus lapathi is known to occur all over Europe and parts of Asia as well as in North America. As its vernacular name suggests its main host trees are willow and poplar. The crepuscular beetles are capable of flight and hatch in August. The feed on their host plants until October and hibernate in their burrows or in leaf litter on the ground. Oviposition takes places in spring of the following year. The larvae hatch in June and go into diapause in their first larval instar until April of the following year. The remaining development cycle takes place until August. In willow cultures the beetle can become a pest. It is common throughout Germany and not endangered. (CB)

Hylotrupes bajulus (L., 1758)
Hylotrupes bajulus
The 7 to 21 mm large old house borer Hylotrupes bajulus (family Cerambycidae) Is the only representative of the genus worldwide. Originally of palearctic distribution, Hylotrupes bajulus is meanwhile found also in North America, South Africa, Asia and Australia. The species develops in coniferous sapwood, mainly construction lumber in roof structures. Contrary to the death watch beetles the larvae don't expel wood dust from their burrows and the infestation often goes unnoticed. Depending on temperature, moisture and nutrition content, the larval development takes 4 to 10 years. The lower the nutrition content, the higher is the amount of wood consumed by the larva and they cause much damage in a short period of time. Therefore an infestation is reportable in some Federal States. In Germany, the species is everywhere present and is not endangered. (CB)

Priobium carpini (Hbst., 1793)
Priobium carpini
The 3 to 5 mm large death watch beetle Priobium carpini (family Anobiidae) is the only representative of the genus in Germany. The genus Priobium is known from the Palearctic, the Nearctic as well as the Neotropic and Australasian region. The distribution of Priobium carpini ranges from Eastern France and North Sweden to Asia minor and to the Caucasus. The eurytopic and mostly synanthropic species lives on wood yards and in houses, occasionally also in forests. It is strictly associated with wood infested by fungi. Hence it is not a primary pest but rather an indicator, that the wood is already damaged by fungal infection. Infested wood is completely pulverized and destroyed. After two years of larval development, the adult beetles appear from May to August and are probably nocturnal. In Germany the species is widespread and not endangered. (CB)

Cylindromorphus filum (Gyll., 1817)
Cylindromorphus filum
The 3.2 to 5 mm large jewel beetle Cylindromorphus filum (family Buprestidae) is the only representative of the genus in Germany. In total, the palearctic genus comprises 19 species, thereof 9 in Europe. Cylindromorphus filum is known to occur from Central Europe to Central Asia. The stenotopic, steppicolous species lives on xerothermic slopes, e.g. steppe heathland, fallow vineyards, calcareous grassland and sun-exposed slopes. The larva develops in various grasses (Graminaeceae), e.g. common meadow-grass (Poa pratensis). In Germany the species is recorded from a stripe across Central Germany from the Palatinate to Brandenburg. North and south of it there are no records. Cylindromorphus filum is not often recorded and is regarded as rare and endangered (RL 2). (CB)

Tarsostenus univittatus (Rossi, 1792)
Tarsostenus univittatus
The 4 to 5 mm large checkered beetle Tarsostenus univittatus (family Cleridae) is the only representative of the genus in Germany. The Australasian genus comprises two species worldwide. Today, Tarsostenus univittatus is a cosmopolitan (Europe, Caucasus, North and South Africa, North, Central and South America). In Germany, the species was first recorded in 1962 at the Kaiserstuhl. Since the 1990s it has spread and is now established in Southwest Germany (Baden-Württemberg, Palatinate, Hesse). The thermophilous species lives on dry wood, often on wood stacks, cuttings from pruned grapevines or synanthropic in carpenter's shops. Beetles and larvae prey on powderpost beetles (Lyctidae) and their larvae living on and in the wood. In Germany Tarsostenus univittatus is not endangered. (CB)

Lamprohiza splendidula (L., 1767)
Lamprohiza splendidula
The 8 to 10 mm large firefly Lamprohiza splendidula (family Lampyridae) is the only representative of the genus in Germany. In Europe, the genus comprises eight species. It is closely related to the holarctic genus Phausis, which may be paraphyletic. Lamprohiza splendidula is known to occur in Central and Southern Europe, from France to Russia, in the South to Greece. The eurytopic species lives on meadows, at the edges of forests and in gardens. The males swarm at dusk and glow. The females sitting in the grass respond to the males signals by glowing. After mating and oviposition the short-lived adults die soon of starvation. The larva is predaceous and feeds on small snails and slugs that are killed with a poisonous bite. The larval development takes 3 years. Lamprohiza splendidula is common throughout Germany and is not endangered. (CB)

Creophilus maxillosus (L., 1758)
Creophilus maxillosus
The 15 to 25 mm large hairy rove beetle Creophilus maxillosus (family Staphylinidae) is the only representative of the genus in Germany. Worldwide 13 Creophilus species have been described. Creophilus maxillosus is almost a cosmopolite, occurring in the entire Palearctic, large parts of North and Central America and parts of South America. The ubiquitous species lives in various habitats from forest to open land. Both beetles and their larvae prey on other insects and their larvae, mainly fly maggots. Hence they are usually found on carrion, dung, fungi and other decaying plant matter. The beetle has defensive abdominal glands, used to secrete a mixture of chemicals (main component dihydroneptalactone) that act as an irritant to predators. Creophilus maxillosus is widespread in Germany and everywhere common. (CB)

Silpha carinata Hbst., 1783
Silpha carinata
The 11 to 20 mm large carrion beetle Silpha carinata (family Silphidae) is one of four representatives of the genus in Germany. The palearctic genus comprises seven species in Europe. Silpha carinata can be distinguished from its similar sister species by the long, bell-shaped 8th article of the antenna and the lateral margin of the elytra which is broadened towards the shoulders. It is widespread in Europe, but is missing in the South (Spain, Greece, Mediterranean Isles). In the East it reaches Mongolia. The eurytopic species lives in various habitats, e.g. meadows, fallow land and clearings in forests. Both the beetles and their woodlouse-shaped larvae are usually found on carrion. In Germany it is recorded from virtually all Federal States, but is usually rare, only occasionally common. It is regarded as vulnerable (RL 3). (CB)

Hygrotus versicolor (Schall., 1783)
Hygrotus versicolor
The 3 to 3.5 mm large diving beetle Hygrotus versicolor (family Dytiscidae) is one of 4 representatives of the genus Hygrotus in Germany. The genus Hygrotus is of holarctic distribution and comprises approx. 70 species, thereof 40 in North America. It is closely related with genus Coelambus, which is regarded as subgenus of Hygrotus by some authors. Hygrotus versicolor is known to occur in North and Central Europe and reaches Transcaucasia and Siberia in the East. Towards the south it becomes rarer. The eurytopic species prefers lentic waters, e.g. oxbow lakes rich in vegetation, gravel pits and small meadow ponds. Both beetles and larvae prey on other water insects and small crustaceans. In Germany, Hygrotus versicolor has been recorded from all Federal States and is not regarded as endangered. (CB)

Lasiotrechus discus (F., 1792)
Lasiotrechus discus
The 4.5 to 5.5 mm large ground beetle Lasiotrechus discus (family Carabidae) is the only representative of the genus in our fauna. Its range stretches over almost the entire Palearctic, from Southern France over Central and the Southern Part of Northern Europe to Siberia, China and Japan. The species has also been introduced to North America and is found in the eastern part of the US and Canada. The eurytopic, hygrophilous and ripicolous species prefers muddy riverbanks and heavy soils and lives under stones deeply embedded into the mud, probably also in the burrows of small mammals. In Germany, Lasiotrechus discus has been recorded from all Federal States und is not endangered. However, it is only found sporadically, not least due to its hidden lifestyle. Most discoveries are made from floodwater detritus. (CB)

Rosalia alpina (L., 1758)
Rosalia alpina
The 15 to 38 mm large Rosalia longicorn Rosalia alpina (family Cerambycidae) is the only representative of the genus and probably among the most beautiful beetle species in our fauna. Its distribution stretches over Central and Southern Europe, from the Pyrenees to Asia Minor and to the Caucasus. Rosalia alpina prefers sparse, primeval beech forests on south- or west-facing slopes between 600 and 1000 m ASL. The adults appear from end of June until early September, with a maximum of activity between mid of July and mid of August. In Central Europe the development takes place in the wood of dead or dying, sun-exposed beeches (Fagus sylvatica), very rarely in sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus). In Germany, Rosalia alpina is very rare, endangered (RL 2) and strictly protected by law. Topic page... (CB)

Novius cruentatus (Muls., 1846)
Novius cruentatus
The 2.5 to 4 mm large ladybird Novius cruentatus (family Coccinellidae) is the only representative of the genus in the German fauna. In Europe, two further Novius species, N. canariensis and N. conicollis are present. Novius cruentatus occurs in the Mediterranean region (North Africa, Spain, South France and Italy) as well as in Central Europe, Asia Minor and Syria. In Germany its populations are limited to the northern and eastern Federal States. The stenotopic, silvicolous and arboricolous species lives in old, xerothermic pine forests on and close to pine trees. The beetles hibernate under the bark. Both beetles and larvae prey on various scale insects, among them the pine monophlebid Palaeococcus fuscipennis. Novius cruentatus is rather rare in Germany and is regarded as vulnerable (RL 3). (CB)

Tenebroides fuscus (Goeze, 1777)
Tenebroides fuscus
The 6 to 10 mm large bark-gnawing beetle Tenebroides fuscus (family Trogositidae) is one of only two representatives of the genus in Germany. In the palearctic region only few Tenebroides sp. occur, whereas in the nearctic and neotropic region the genus is more speciose. T. fuscus ranges from North Africa over large parts of Europe. The beetle lives in old forests, extensive orchards and parks with old trees under the bark of deciduous trees (mainly beech and oak) and are considered an urwald relict species. The nocturnal beetle preys on other wood-dwelling insects. In Germany the species is missing in the northern Federal States and is endangered (RL 2). From its similar sister species T. mauritanicus it is clearly separated based on ecological criteria: The latter is a synanthropic pest in stored grains, rice and flour, mainly in mills and bakeries. (CB)

Dictyopterus aurora (Hbst., 1784)
Dictyopterus aurora
The 7 to 13 mm large golden net-winged beetle Dictyopterus aurora (family Lycidae) is one of only seven representatives of the family in Germany, whose primary center of occurrence is in the tropical and subtropical region with more than 3500 species. Dictyopterus aurora is of holarctic distribution. The eurytopic, silvicolous and xylodetricolous species can be found in coniferous and deciduous forests up to 1500 m above sealevel. The larvae live in rotting stumps and logs of conifers and occasionally deciduous trees and prey and other insects and their larvae as well as worms and snails. The adult beetles can be found on the development substrate, on woodstacks and on umbellifers. In Germany the species has been recorded from all Federal States and is not regarded as endangered. (CB)

Philonthus spinipes Shp., 1874
Philonthus spinipes
The 13 to 18 mm large rove beetle Philonthus spinipes (family Staphylinidae) is a representative of the speciose cosmopolitan genus Philonthus, which comprises over 1250 species worldwide and 71 in Germany. Philonthus spinipes originates from East Asia, but has expanded its range westwards and is nowadays present in the entire Palearctic from Western Europe to Siberia. In Central Europe, the first discovery was made in 1982. It is a habitat competitor with Philonthus nitidus, which it has gradually replaced with the consequence, that P. nitidus has become rare in Central Europe. The beetles can be found in compost, excrements, plant debris and occasionally in rotting carrion. In Germany the species is present in all Federal States and – as an adventive species – is not endangered. (CB)

Xylodrepa quadrimaculata (Scop., 1772)
Xylodrepa quadrimaculata
The 12 to 14 mm large four-spotted carrion beetle Xylodrepa quadrimaculata (family Silphidae) is the only representative of the genus in Europe. Meanwhile the genus Xylodrepa Thomson 1859 has been renamed to Dendroxena Motschulsky 1858. The easily recognizable species occurs throughout almost entire Europe, with the exception of the far North and the Iberian Peninsula. Contrary to most carrion-feeding silphids Xylodrepa quadrimaculata is an arboricolous predator of caterpillars. The beetles live in deciduous and mixed forests and in Gardens on trees and shrubs, where the hunt the caterpillars of processionary moths (Thaumetopoeidae), winter moths (Operophthera) and leafroller moths (Tortricidae). Higher altitudes and coniferous forests are avoided. In Germany the species is everywhere common and not endangered. (CB)

Graptodytes pictus (F., 1787)
Graptodytes pictus
The 2.2 to 2.5 mm large diving beetle Graptodytes pictus (family Dytiscidae) is the most common representative of the genus in our fauna. From the Western Palearctic 21 species have been described, mostly from the Mediterranean region. Three species (G. granularis, bilineatus, pictus) appear in Germany. The genus is missing in the Nearctic. Graptodytes pictus is found in almost entire Europe with the exception of Northern Scandinavia, in the south it reaches Catalonia, Sardinia and Dalmatia. It prefers small, stagnant or slowly flowing waters with rich vegetation. Oviposition takes place on water plants. The larvae prey mostly on small crustaceans (Cladocera). The new beetles hatch in autumn and hibernate. In Germany, Graptodytes pictus is recorded from all Federal States and is not regarded as endangered. (CB)

Omophron limbatum (F., 1776)
Omophron limbatum
The 4.5 to 6.5 mm large Round Ground Beetle Omophron limbatum (family Carabidae) is the only representative of the genus in Germany. Worldwide about 60 Omophron species have been described. With its rounded, vaulty body shape it reminds rather of a ladybird than a typical ground beetle at first sight. The stenotopic, ripicolous species occurs in North Africa, Europe, Asia Minor and reaches the Caucasus in the east. It lives on sandy, unshadowed edges of flowing and stagnant water bodies, where the beetles hide under wet sand or stones during the day. At dusk and at night the prey on other insects. In Germany, Omophron limbatum is recorded from all Federal States. In its habitats it often occurs in abundance. In the German Red List of endangered species it is classified as near threatened (RL V). (CB)

Otiorhynchus niger (F., 1775)
Otiorhynchus niger
The 10 to 12 mm large weevil Otiorhynchus niger (family Curculionidae) is one of numerous representatives of the genus in Central Europe. Meanwhile the species has been renamed as O. coecus. The montane to subalpine species lives in the low mountain range of Central and Southern Europe. The polyphagous beetles live on coniferous and deciduous trees and shrubs. The larvae develop in a 2-year cycle on the roots of the host plants and can cause some damage especially to young plants. The larvae hibernate once and the beetles hatch in the autumn of the following year. They hibernate in the soil. The beetles can live up to three years and reproduce not parthenogenetic, contrary to other representatives of the genus. In Germany, the species is only missing in the North. It is not regarded as endangered. (CB)

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