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Text © K. Reißmann, T. Hörren, M. Stern and C. Benisch

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Silpha carinata Hbst., 1783
Silpha carinata
The 11 to 20 mm large carrion beetle Silpha carinata (family Silphidae) is one of four representatives of the genus in Germany. The palearctic genus comprises seven species in Europe. Silpha carinata can be distinguished from its similar sister species by the long, bell-shaped 8th article of the antenna and the lateral margin of the elytra which is broadened towards the shoulders. It is widespread in Europe, but is missing in the South (Spain, Greece, Mediterranean Isles). In the East it reaches Mongolia. The eurytopic species lives in various habitats, e.g. meadows, fallow land and clearings in forests. Both the beetles and their woodlouse-shaped larvae are usually found on carrion. In Germany it is recorded from virtually all Federal States, but is usually rare, only occasionally common. It is regarded as vulnerable (RL 3). (CB)

Hygrotus versicolor (Schall., 1783)
Hygrotus versicolor
The 3 to 3.5 mm large diving beetle Hygrotus versicolor (family Dytiscidae) is one of 4 representatives of the genus Hygrotus in Germany. The genus Hygrotus is of holarctic distribution and comprises approx. 70 species, thereof 40 in North America. It is closely related with genus Coelambus, which is regarded as subgenus of Hygrotus by some authors. Hygrotus versicolor is known to occur in North and Central Europe and reaches Transcaucasia and Siberia in the East. Towards the south it becomes rarer. The eurytopic species prefers lentic waters, e.g. oxbow lakes rich in vegetation, gravel pits and small meadow ponds. Both beetles and larvae prey on other water insects and small crustaceans. In Germany, Hygrotus versicolor has been recorded from all Federal States and is not regarded as endangered. (CB)

Lasiotrechus discus (F., 1792)
Lasiotrechus discus
The 4.5 to 5.5 mm large ground beetle Lasiotrechus discus (family Carabidae) is the only representative of the genus in our fauna. Its range stretches over almost the entire Palearctic, from Southern France over Central and the Southern Part of Northern Europe to Siberia, China and Japan. The species has also been introduced to North America and is found in the eastern part of the US and Canada. The eurytopic, hygrophilous and ripicolous species prefers muddy riverbanks and heavy soils and lives under stones deeply embedded into the mud, probably also in the burrows of small mammals. In Germany, Lasiotrechus discus has been recorded from all Federal States und is not endangered. However, it is only found sporadically, not least due to its hidden lifestyle. Most discoveries are made from floodwater detritus. (CB)

Rosalia alpina (L., 1758)
Rosalia alpina
The 15 to 38 mm large Rosalia longicorn Rosalia alpina (family Cerambycidae) is the only representative of the genus and probably among the most beautiful beetle species in our fauna. Its distribution stretches over Central and Southern Europe, from the Pyrenees to Asia Minor and to the Caucasus. Rosalia alpina prefers sparse, primeval beech forests on south- or west-facing slopes between 600 and 1000 m ASL. The adults appear from end of June until early September, with a maximum of activity between mid of July and mid of August. In Central Europe the development takes place in the wood of dead or dying, sun-exposed beeches (Fagus sylvatica), very rarely in sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus). In Germany, Rosalia alpina is very rare, endangered (RL 2) and strictly protected by law. Topic page... (CB)

Novius cruentatus (Muls., 1846)
Novius cruentatus
The 2.5 to 4 mm large ladybird Novius cruentatus (family Coccinellidae) is the only representative of the genus in the German fauna. In Europe, two further Novius species, N. canariensis and N. conicollis are present. Novius cruentatus occurs in the Mediterranean region (North Africa, Spain, South France and Italy) as well as in Central Europe, Asia Minor and Syria. In Germany its populations are limited to the northern and eastern Federal States. The stenotopic, silvicolous and arboricolous species lives in old, xerothermic pine forests on and close to pine trees. The beetles hibernate under the bark. Both beetles and larvae prey on various scale insects, among them the pine monophlebid Palaeococcus fuscipennis. Novius cruentatus is rather rare in Germany and is regarded as vulnerable (RL 3). (CB)

Tenebroides fuscus (Goeze, 1777)
Tenebroides fuscus
The 6 to 10 mm large bark-gnawing beetle Tenebroides fuscus (family Trogositidae) is one of only two representatives of the genus in Germany. In the palearctic region only few Tenebroides sp. occur, whereas in the nearctic and neotropic region the genus is more speciose. T. fuscus ranges from North Africa over large parts of Europe. The beetle lives in old forests, extensive orchards and parks with old trees under the bark of deciduous trees (mainly beech and oak) and are considered an urwald relict species. The nocturnal beetle preys on other wood-dwelling insects. In Germany the species is missing in the northern Federal States and is endangered (RL 2). From its similar sister species T. mauritanicus it is clearly separated based on ecological criteria: The latter is a synanthropic pest in stored grains, rice and flour, mainly in mills and bakeries. (CB)

Dictyopterus aurora (Hbst., 1784)
Dictyopterus aurora
The 7 to 13 mm large golden net-winged beetle Dictyopterus aurora (family Lycidae) is one of only seven representatives of the family in Germany, whose primary center of occurrence is in the tropical and subtropical region with more than 3500 species. Dictyopterus aurora is of holarctic distribution. The eurytopic, silvicolous and xylodetricolous species can be found in coniferous and deciduous forests up to 1500 m above sealevel. The larvae live in rotting stumps and logs of conifers and occasionally deciduous trees and prey and other insects and their larvae as well as worms and snails. The adult beetles can be found on the development substrate, on woodstacks and on umbellifers. In Germany the species has been recorded from all Federal States and is not regarded as endangered. (CB)

Philonthus spinipes Shp., 1874
Philonthus spinipes
The 13 to 18 mm large rove beetle Philonthus spinipes (family Staphylinidae) is a representative of the speciose cosmopolitan genus Philonthus, which comprises over 1250 species worldwide and 71 in Germany. Philonthus spinipes originates from East Asia, but has expanded its range westwards and is nowadays present in the entire Palearctic from Western Europe to Siberia. In Central Europe, the first discovery was made in 1982. It is a habitat competitor with Philonthus nitidus, which it has gradually replaced with the consequence, that P. nitidus has become rare in Central Europe. The beetles can be found in compost, excrements, plant debris and occasionally in rotting carrion. In Germany the species is present in all Federal States and – as an adventive species – is not endangered. (CB)

Xylodrepa quadrimaculata (Scop., 1772)
Xylodrepa quadrimaculata
The 12 to 14 mm large four-spotted carrion beetle Xylodrepa quadrimaculata (family Silphidae) is the only representative of the genus in Europe. Meanwhile the genus Xylodrepa Thomson 1859 has been renamed to Dendroxena Motschulsky 1858. The easily recognizable species occurs throughout almost entire Europe, with the exception of the far North and the Iberian Peninsula. Contrary to most carrion-feeding silphids Xylodrepa quadrimaculata is an arboricolous predator of caterpillars. The beetles live in deciduous and mixed forests and in Gardens on trees and shrubs, where the hunt the caterpillars of processionary moths (Thaumetopoeidae), winter moths (Operophthera) and leafroller moths (Tortricidae). Higher altitudes and coniferous forests are avoided. In Germany the species is everywhere common and not endangered. (CB)

Graptodytes pictus (F., 1787)
Graptodytes pictus
The 2.2 to 2.5 mm large diving beetle Graptodytes pictus (family Dytiscidae) is the most common representative of the genus in our fauna. From the Western Palearctic 21 species have been described, mostly from the Mediterranean region. Three species (G. granularis, bilineatus, pictus) appear in Germany. The genus is missing in the Nearctic. Graptodytes pictus is found in almost entire Europe with the exception of Northern Scandinavia, in the south it reaches Catalonia, Sardinia and Dalmatia. It prefers small, stagnant or slowly flowing waters with rich vegetation. Oviposition takes place on water plants. The larvae prey mostly on small crustaceans (Cladocera). The new beetles hatch in autumn and hibernate. In Germany, Graptodytes pictus is recorded from all Federal States and is not regarded as endangered. (CB)

Omophron limbatum (F., 1776)
Omophron limbatum
The 4.5 to 6.5 mm large Round Ground Beetle Omophron limbatum (family Carabidae) is the only representative of the genus in Germany. Worldwide about 60 Omophron species have been described. With its rounded, vaulty body shape it reminds rather of a ladybird than a typical ground beetle at first sight. The stenotopic, ripicolous species occurs in North Africa, Europe, Asia Minor and reaches the Caucasus in the east. It lives on sandy, unshadowed edges of flowing and stagnant water bodies, where the beetles hide under wet sand or stones during the day. At dusk and at night the prey on other insects. In Germany, Omophron limbatum is recorded from all Federal States. In its habitats it often occurs in abundance. In the German Red List of endangered species it is classified as near threatened (RL V). (CB)

Otiorhynchus niger (F., 1775)
Otiorhynchus niger
The 10 to 12 mm large weevil Otiorhynchus niger (family Curculionidae) is one of numerous representatives of the genus in Central Europe. Meanwhile the species has been renamed as O. coecus. The montane to subalpine species lives in the low mountain range of Central and Southern Europe. The polyphagous beetles live on coniferous and deciduous trees and shrubs. The larvae develop in a 2-year cycle on the roots of the host plants and can cause some damage especially to young plants. The larvae hibernate once and the beetles hatch in the autumn of the following year. They hibernate in the soil. The beetles can live up to three years and reproduce not parthenogenetic, contrary to other representatives of the genus. In Germany, the species is only missing in the North. It is not regarded as endangered. (CB)

Hypulus quercinus (Quensel, 1790)
Hypulus quercinus
The 5 to 6 mm large darkling beetle Hypulus quercinus (family Melandryidae) is one of only two species of the genus in Germany. It can be distinguished from its even rarer sister species Hypulus bifasciatus by the black marks on the elytra. Hypulus quercinus is known to occur from East France, South England and South Scandinavia to Russia, in the South to North Italy, Croatia and Romania. The stenotopic, silvicolous species lives in old deciduous forests and parks. It develops in the rotten wood of roots of oak stumps, occasionally in hornbeam and chestnut. The adult beetles can be found from May to October on stems, logs and stumps. In Germany the species is recorded from many Federal States. However, records are rare and scattered and Hypulus quercinus is regarded as endangered (RL ,2). (CB)

Anthaxia fulgurans (Schrk., 1789)
Anthaxia fulgurans
The 4 to 7 mm large jewel beetle Anthaxia fulgurans (family Buprestidae) is one of numerous species of the genus in Europe. Worldwide more than 700 Anthaxia species have been described. A. fulgurans is known to occur from Northeast Spain to Asia Minor, Syria and the Ukraine. The stenotopic, thermophilous species develops in trees of the Rosaceae family, including apple, blackthorn, plum and cherry. The larva develops under the bark of the host trees. Pupation takes place in a chamber in the wood. The beetles can be found on sunny days on various blossoms. The female exhibits metallic red elytra (with the exceptions of the elytral suture), whereas the male is mainly metallic green. In Germany, the species has been only recorded from xerothermic habitats in Baden, Württemberg, Thuringia and Saxony. It is regarded as critically endangered (RL 1). (CB)

Lymexylon navale (L., 1758)
Lymexylon navale
The 7 to 16 mm timberworm beetle Lymexylon navale (family Lymexylonidae) is the only representative of the genus in Germany, with only five species worldwide. The female exhibits a black head and a red-brown pronotum and elytra. The elytra of the male are often blackened and the third article of the maxillary palps is enlarged and branched. The stenotopic and silvicolous beetles develop in ailing deciduous trees and felled timber logs, mainly oak. They are considered a serious pest of oak. The beetles can be found in old deciduous forests and on timber storage yards, where the swarm during the warm afternoon hours. Contrary to other Lymexylonidae they do not cultivate fungi in their burrows. In Germany, Lymexylon navale is recorded from most Federal States and is regarded as vulnerable (RL 3). (CB)

Opilo mollis (L., 1758)
Opilo mollis
The 9 to 13 mm large checkered beetle Opilo mollis (family Cleridae) is the most common species of the genus in Germany. It can be distinguished from its very similar sister species O. domesticus by the shape of the pronotum and the puncture of the elytra. Our third species, O. pallidus lives acrodendric on old oaks and is rarely recorded. The genus Opilo is of palearctic and oriental origin, but many representatives are cosmopolitan today through transport, among them O. mollis. From the Palearctic, 27 species have been described. The eurytopic species lives in forests, at the edges of forests, in parks and gardens on old coniferous and deciduous wood. Both beetles and larvae are predaceous and feed woodboring insects. In Germany, O. mollis is recorded from almost all Federal States and is not regarded as endangered. (CB)

Trissemus antennatus (Aube, 1833)
Trissemus antennatus
The 1.7 to 1.9 mm large short-winged mold beetle Trissemus antennatus (family Pselaphidae) is the only representative of the genus on Germany and can be easily recognized by the conspicuous club of the antenna, which is the origin of scientific name of the species. The sister species T. impressus has been meanwhile transferred into genus Fagniezia. In the western Palearctic 20 species have been described, thereof 7 occur in Europe. The stenotopic, hygrophilous species is known to occur in South Germany, France, Italy and on Corsica and Elba. The beetles live in swamps and on the muddy edges of waters. Both beetles and larvae are predaceous and feed on small insects in the moss or leaf litter. In Germany, Trissemus antennatus is only recorded from Baden and the Palatinate and is regarded as critically endangered (RL 1). (CB)

Paederidus ruficollis (F., 1781)
Paederidus ruficollis
The 6.5 to 8 mm large rove beetle Paederidus ruficollis (family Staphylinidae) is one of two quite similar species of the genus in Germany. Its sister species P. rubrothoracicus is slightly larger (8 to 9.5 mm) and exhibits a dark blue metallic abdomen, whereas in P. ruficollis the abdomen is black with only a faint blue metallic shine. In Europe, four species are known. The stenotopic, psammophilous species ranges from North Africa over Europe to Asia Minor and Iran. The gregarious beetles can be found on sandy and gravelly edges of rivers and lakes, where they move swiftly in the sunshine. The beetles are predaceous and feed on other insects. In Germany, recent records are known from many Federal States with exception of the East. Paederidus ruficollis is not regarded as endangered. (CB)

Hetaerius ferrugineus (Ol., 1789)
Hetaerius ferrugineus
The 1.5 to 2 mm large clown beetle Hetaerius ferrugineus (family Histeridae) is the only representative of the genus in Europe. Worldwide, about 30 species have been described, most of them from the Nearctic. The species is distributed from the southern part of Northern Europe to South Europe and the Caucasus. The myrmecophilous species lives in warm habitats, river meadows, heathland and arid grassland in the nests of various ant species. The beetles feed on dead and sick ants. Most of the time, the ants show indifferent behavior towards the beetle. In the case of attacks, the beetle feigns death with its legs and antennae closely pressed to its body. The ants then carry the beetle around, lick it and finally release it. In Germany, the species is widespread, but not common. It is regarded as vulnerable (RL ,3). (CB)

Haliplus confinis Steph., 1828
Haliplus confinis
The 2.3 to 3.7 mm large crawling water beetle Haliplus confinis (family Haliplidae) is of short navicular shape. It is one of 30 representatives of the genus in Europe, of which 18 occur in Germany. The beetle lives in clean stagnant waters or quiet streams, where they feed on algae and plant parts. The stenotopic species is distributed from North and Central Europe to Siberia and has been recorded China lately. Like all Haliplidae H. confinis is a poor swimmer. Unlike the representatives of family Dytiscidae they use an alternate motion of legs and prefer rather to crawl on water plants than to swim, a behavior, which gave the family its vernacular name. The beetles are able to fly and reach suitable waters in this way. In Germany, the species is recorded from almost all Federal States but is regarded as vulnerable (RL 3). (CB)

Cylindera germanica L., 1758
Cylindera germanica
The German Tiger beetle Cylindera germanica (family Carabidae) is one of only two species of the genus in Europe. It is known to occur in Europe and Asia. It prefers calcareous and semi-arid grassland, where the larvae develop in self-dug burrows in loamy or marly soil during two years. The populations of this xerophilous species have declined dramatically during the last decades and the beetle is now facing extinction in Germany (RL 1). Root cause for its decline is the loss of suitable habitats with sparse vegetation and open spots. These types of microhabitats are found in extensive agriculture, which has declined during the last decades, also on military training areas, which are rapidly overgrown by vegetation, once military training stops. Also eutrophication of calcareous grassland through immission of nitrogen compounds plays a role. (CB)

Platydema violaceum (F., 1790)
Platydema violaceum
The darkling beetle Platydema violaceum (family Tenebrionidae) occurs from the southern part of North Europe over Central and South Europe and reaches the Caucasus in the East. In Germany, the stenotopic, mycetophilous species has been recorded throughout the country, although recent records are missing from Westphalia. The development takes place in Jew's ear (Auricularia auricula-judae), a saprophytic fungus mainly growing on elderberry (Sambucus), but also on various other deciduous trees, like beech (Fagus), birch (Betula) and elm (Ulmus). The beetle can be found throughout the year under the bark of deciduous trees, especially during the winter. While 50 years ago the species was very rare most regions in Germany, it has fortunately regained some territory over the recent decades. (TH)

Larinus beckeri Petri, 1907
Larinus beckeri
The 6 to 8 mm large weevil Larinus beckeri (family Curculionidae) is one of seven quite similar species of the genus Larinus in Germany. It can be recognized by the rounded oval body shape and the relatively long and narrow snout. It ranges from Europe to Siberia, however, its exact range is not fully known. Larinus beckeri lives exclusively on knapweed species (Centaurea) in the lowlands, whereas the closely related sister species Larinus jaceae also uses various thistle species as host plant, preferably in the low mountain range. The larva develops and pupates in the flower. The beetles hatch starting July and hibernate. In Germany, Larinus beckeri is missing in the North and in the East and according to Rheinheimer/Hassler (2010) is regarded as endangered (RL 2). (CB)

Timarcha tenebricosa (F., 1775)
Timarcha tenebricosa
The 12 to 18 mm large bloody-nosed beetle Timarcha tenebricosa (family Chrysomelidae) is one of three species in the genus in Germany. Worldwide more than 100 species have been described from three subgenera, most of them in the Palearctic, a few in the Nearctic. The eurytopic, herbicolous Timarcha tenebricosa occurs in Southern and Central Europe. It prefers dry edges of forests and meadows, sunny meadows alongside rivers and creeks, dry slopes and vineyards. The oligophagous species develops on bedstraws (Galium). When disturbed, they exude a bright orange fluid from their mouth, hence their common name. The male exhibits enlarged tarsi, which allow it to cling firmly to the female when mating. In Germany, records are only known from the South and the West and the species is regarded as vulnerable (RL 3). (CB)

Leptura aurulenta (F., 1792)
Leptura aurulenta
The 13 to 18 mm large golden haired longhorn beetle Leptura aurulenta (family Cerambycidae) is one of five representatives of the genus in Germany. It can be potentially confused with its sister species Leptura quadrifasciata, which shows completely black legs. The stenotopic, thermophilous species occurs in Northwest Africa, South and Central Europe. It prefers sunny edges of forests and glades in the colline zone. Larval development takes place in trunks and rootstocks of dead deciduous trees, especially beech, but also oak, willow, poplar, alder, birch and chestnut. The adult beetles appear from June to August on umbellifers. They are quite agile in the sunlight and are able fliers. In Germany, the species is limited to the South and the West. It is regarded as endangered (RL 2). (CB)

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