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Text © K. Reißmann, T. Hörren, M. Stern and C. Benisch

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Tilloidea unifasciata (F., 1787)
Tilloidea unifasciata
The 5 to 8 mm large checkered beetle Tilloidea unifasciata (family Cleridae) is the only representative of the genus in Germany, which comprises five species in the Palearctic. Tilloidea unifasciata is known to occur in in Europe, Asia minor, Iran and reaches India in the east. The beetles live in sparse deciduous forests, at sun-exposed edges of forests and in vineyards. They can be found on rotting wood, infested by other insects, mainly oak, but also vine wood. Both the beetles and their larvae prey on saproxylic beetles and their larvae. In Germany the thermophilous species is missing in the northern Federal States. Their populations are often scattered, rare and are regarded as endangered (RL 2). Consequently, Tilloidea unifasciata is not recorded particularly often. (CB)

Axinotarsus marginalis (Cast., 1840)
Axinotarsus marginalis
The 3 to 4 mm large soft-winged flower beetle Axinotarsus marginalis (family Malachiidae) is one of three representatives of the genus in Germany. In the Palearctic the genus comprises more than 30 species. A. marginalis can be distinguished from its similar sister species A. pulicarius by the at least partially yellow front and middle tibiae, which are completely black in A. pulicarius. The eurytopic, graminaceicolous species lives in Central and Southern Europa and reaches the Caucasus in the east. It can be found at the edges of forests, on glades, in floodplains and on heathland. The larva is predaceous and develops in rotten wood, whereas the beetles dwell on flowering grasses, where they feed on pollen. In Germany, Axinotarsus marginalis is recorded from all Federal States and is not regarded as endangered. (CB)

Plectophloeus nitidus (Fairm., 1857)
Plectophloeus nitidus
The 1.3 to 1.5 mm large short-winged mold beetle Plectophloeus nitidus (family Pselaphidae) is one of six representatives of the genus in Germany. In the Western Palearctic the genus comprises 12 species. Plectophloeus nitidus is known to occur in Western, Central and Southeast Europe. In the North it reaches the British Isles, Denmark and South Sweden. The stenotopic, hygrophilous and silvicolous species lives in deciduous forests, parks and floodplains in moist, rotting wood (red-rotten oak wood seems to be preferred), also in wood detritus, under bark and in rotting brushwood. Often they live close to ants of genus Lasius. They feed on other small insects and mites. In the German fauna they are among the more common Plectophloeus species with records from many Federal States. They are not regarded as endangered. (CB)

Euconnus rutilipennis (Müll.Kunze, 1822)
Euconnus rutilipennis
The only 1.9 to 2.1 mm large antlike stone beetle Euconnus rutilipennis (family Scydmaenidae) is one of twelve representatives of the genus in Germany. Worldwide, the speciose genus comprises more than 2500 species in all biogeographic ecozones. Euconnus rutilipennis is known to occur from the southern part of Northern Europe over Central Europa to the northern part of South Europe and the Balkan Peninsula. The stenotopic, hygrophilous and paludicolous species lives in swamps, at the edges of swampy stagnant waters under leaf litter, detritus as well as in bogs on peat moss (Sphagnum). The species is missing in the mountain range. Like most representatives of the genus, the beetles feed on mites. In Germany, Euconnus rutilipennis is recorded from many Federal States and is not endangered. (CB)

Berosus signaticollis (Charp., 1825)
Berosus signaticollis
The 5 to 6.4 mm large water scavenger beetle Berosus signaticollis (family Hydrophilidae) is one of six representatives of the genus in Germany. Worldwide the genus comprises more than 260 species. Berosus signaticollis is known to occur in South and Central Europe including the British Isles. The stenotopic, tyrphobiont species lives in bog ponds and sun exposed tarns. With the conspicuous black doubled mark on the disc of the pronotum is can be relatively easily recognized among the otherwise rather difficult species. The beetles can breathe under water by absorbing oxygen through their body surface. The larvae feed and small water-dwelling insects and crustaceans. In Germany, Berosus signaticollis is recorded from all Federal States and is not endangered, but becomes rarer towards the North. (CB)

Ophonus rufibarbis (F., 1792)
Ophonus rufibarbis
The 6 to 9.1 mm large ground beetle Ophonus rufibarbis (family Carabidae) belongs to the genus Ophonus, which comprises 16 species in Germany and approximately 70 species in the Palearctic. Ophonus rufibarbis is known to occur in Northwest Africa, Europe, the Caucasus, Central and South Russia, Asia minor, Central Asia and West Siberia. It has been introduced to North America. The eurytopic, xerophilous species lives on dry fields and ruderal sites, on sandy river banks, in sand and gravel pits and in sparse deciduous forests from the lowlands to the mountain range. Ophonus rufibarbis is phytophagous. The beetles can be found in tufts of grass and decaying plant matter. The beetles are nocturnal and capable of flight. In Germany Ophonus rufibarbis is widespread and not endangered. (CB)

Amalus scortillum (Hbst., 1795)
Amalus scortillum
The 1.7 to 2.1 mm large weevil Amalus scortillum (family Curculionidae) is the only representative of the monotypic genus worldwide. The species is of palearctic distribution and has been introduced to North America. Some authors consider it a holarctic species. The beetles and their larvae live on birdweed (Polygonum aviculare), occasionally on sorrels (Rumex). The stenotopic, xerophilous and halotolerant species can be found on sandy soil, e.g. ruderal sites, boundary ridges, riverbanks and slopes, in sandpits and at the edges of forests. The females lay their eggs in April and May. The larvae feed on the roots and root collars of their host plant and pupate in the soil. In Germany, Amalus scortillum is present in all Federal States, but is not particularly often recorded. It is not regarded as endangered. (CB)

Chrysolina americana (L., 1758)
Chrysolina americana
The 6 to 8 mm large Rosemary beetle Chrysolina americana (family Chrysomelidae) originates from the Mediterranean region despite its scientific name. It belongs to the speciose genus Chrysolina, which comprises about 450 species, the majority of the in the Palearctic. The stenotopic, xerothermophilous species has been introduced over the last years in several European countries und is meanwhile established on the British Isles. In Germany, it is still regarded as not firmly established. Both the beetles and their larvae live on various Lamiaceae, especially rosemary (Rosmarinus), lavender (Lavandula), thyme (Thymus) and sage (Salvia). They feed on the new shoot tips of their host plant and cause them to die. The larvae pupate in the soil. They are regarded as a pest in commercial herbs cultivation. (CB)

Triplax russica (L., 1758)
Triplax russica
The 4.5 to 6.5 mm large pleasing fungus beetle Triplax russica (family Erotylidae) is one of 17 representatives of the genus in Europe. Worldwide the genus Triplax comprises about 100 species. In our fauna Triplax russica is relatively easily recognized by its size and parallel build and its black, clubbed antennae. Triplax russica ranges from North Africa over Europa (up to the far North) to the Caucasus. In Southern Europe it prefers the mountain range. The eurytopic, mycetobiont species inhabits deciduous forests and lives polyphagous on various bracket fungi (Meripilus, Pleurotus, Phellinus, Inonotus, Fomes, Fomitopsis, Polyporus) on deciduous trees, mainly beech. Larval development takes place in the bracket fungi. The larva dug themselves into the soil for pupation. The new generation hatches in July. In Germany, Triplax russica is widespread and common. (CB)

Dermestes lardarius L., 1758
Dermestes lardarius
The 7 to 9.5 mm large Larder beetle Dermestes lardarius (family Dermestidae) is among the easily recognizable species of the genus, thanks to the conspicuous hairy yellow band at the basal third of the elytra. Originating from Eurasia, the species is a cosmopolitan today and is regarded as hemerophile. In stores and households, both the beetles and their larvae feed on various animal products, including bacon, ham, cheese, noodles, but also stuffed animals, insect collections, leather and fur. Under ideal conditions (25 °C, 65% humidity), they can produce up to six generations per year. In Central Europa, under outdoor conditions it is usually one or two. The species is regarded both as a hygiene pest, but the larvae can also create structural damage to construction materials. In Germany, Dermestes lardarius is everywhere present and common. (CB)

Ischnodes sanguinicollis (Panz., 1793)
Ischnodes sanguinicollis
The 8.5 to 11 mm large click beetle Ischnodes sanguinicollis (family Elateridae) is the only representative of the genus in Europe. It is known to occur in Southern, Western and Central Europe (including the British Isles), in the East in Asia minor, the Caucasus and Siberia. The stenotopic, silvicolous species is counted among the so called Urwald relict species und lives in old deciduous forests. The larva develops in tree hollows at the foot of trees, mainly oak and beech, with a large filling of wood detritus formed by the activity of other insects. The larva is predaceous and feeds on other insect larvae. For pupation it attaches itself to small pieces of wood in the detritus. The beetles swarm during the afternoon hours on warm day starting end of April. In Germany, Ischnodes sanguinicollis is very rare and is regarded as critically endangered (RL 1). (CB)

Cantharis lateralis L., 1758
Cantharis lateralis
The 5 to 7 mm large soldier beetle Cantharis lateralis (family Cantharidae) is one of 24 representatives of the genus in Germany. In Europe the genus comprises around 80 species. In our fauna, Cantharis lateralis can be distinguished from similar species by the double pubescence and the yellow margin of the elytra. Its distribution stretches from North Africa over Europe, Asia minor and the Caucasus to Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Afghanistan. The eurytopic species inhabits the edges of ponds and rivers and wet, boggy meadows. They can be found on flower umbels and low vegetation. The beetles prey on other insects but also feed on pollen. In Germany, Cantharis lateralis is recorded from all Federal States and is not endangered. (CB)

Acylophorus wagenschieberi Kiesw., 1850
Acylophorus wagenschieberi
The 7 to 9 mm large rove beetle Acylophorus wagenschieberi (family Staphylinidae) is one of only two representatives of the genus in Germany, which are easily recognized by a prolonged scape and the geniculate antennae. Acylophorus wagenschieberi is known to occur from the southern part of Northern Europe over Central Europe to Siberia. The stenotopic, tyrphobiont species is a typical inhabitant of raised and transitional bogs, which lives on wet peat moss (Sphagnum) and requires a constant, high water level. Larval development takes place in June and July. The generation appears end of July and is active until October, before it seeks a suitable wintering ground and hibernates. Due to declining habitats the species has become rare in Germany and is regarded as vulnerable (RL 3). (CB)

Agathidium nigripenne (F., 1792)
Agathidium nigripenne
The 2 to 2.7 mm large round fungus beetle Agathidium nigripenne (family Leiodidae) is one of close to 20 species of the genus Germany. Worldwide the genus is quite speciose and over the last years numerous new species have been named after public persons. Agathidium nigripenne is widespread in Europe and reaches beyond the polar circle. It lives in forests, mainly beech forests. The eurytopic, mycetophilous species can be found under bark, on rotting wood and in the leaf litter of forests. The beetles feed on slime molds (Eumycetozoa), but are also found on higher fungi (Basidiomycota). If they can directly feed on the latter remains to be clarified. If disturbed they can almost completely curl up into a ball. In Germany Agathidium nigripenne is widespread and everywhere common. (CB)

Sphaeridium scarabaeoides (L., 1758)
Sphaeridium scarabaeoides
The 5.5 to 7.5 mm large terrestrial water scavenger beetle Sphaeridium scarabaeoides (family Hydrophilidae) is one of four representatives of the genus in Germany. Worldwide the genus comprises only somewhat more than 40 species. It can be distinguished from its very similar sister species S. lunatum by the brighter and more contoured red mark on the shoulder. The eurytopic, coprophilous species is of palearctic distribution and has been introduced to North America, where it is meanwhile established. The beetles live in fresh dung of cow, horse and sheep in various habitats. The females deposit their eggs directly in the dung, protected by a cocoon spun around them. The larvae develop in the dung. In Germany, Sphaeridium scarabaeoides is widespread and everywhere very common. (CB)

Bembidion argenteolum Ahr., 1812
Bembidion argenteolum
The 6 to 7.5 mm large ground beetle Bembidion argenteolum (family Carabidae) is a representative of the exceedingly speciose genus Bembidion, which comprises more than 1200 species worldwide. Bembidion inhabits the northern Palearctic from Central and North Europe over Siberia to East Asia. Together with its similar sister species from the subgenus Bracteon, B. litorale and B. velox it lives on mud banks and near-natural immature soil alongside mid-sized and large flowing waters, habitats that usually found in dynamic floodplains. The larval development takes place in early summer in sandy substrate of the river banks. The beetles hibernate as imago. In Germany, Bembidion argenteolum is present in many Federal States, but due to its high habitat requirements it is generally rare and endangered (RL 2). (CB)

Cryptorhynchus lapathi (L., 1758)
Cryptorhynchus lapathi
The 5 to 8.5 mm large poplar and willow borer Cryptorhynchus lapathi (family Curculionidae) is the only representative of the genus in Germany. The speciose genus is globally present and in bad need of a thorough revision. Cryptorhynchus lapathi is known to occur all over Europe and parts of Asia as well as in North America. As its vernacular name suggests its main host trees are willow and poplar. The crepuscular beetles are capable of flight and hatch in August. The feed on their host plants until October and hibernate in their burrows or in leaf litter on the ground. Oviposition takes places in spring of the following year. The larvae hatch in June and go into diapause in their first larval instar until April of the following year. The remaining development cycle takes place until August. In willow cultures the beetle can become a pest. It is common throughout Germany and not endangered. (CB)

Hylotrupes bajulus (L., 1758)
Hylotrupes bajulus
The 7 to 21 mm large old house borer Hylotrupes bajulus (family Cerambycidae) Is the only representative of the genus worldwide. Originally of palearctic distribution, Hylotrupes bajulus is meanwhile found also in North America, South Africa, Asia and Australia. The species develops in coniferous sapwood, mainly construction lumber in roof structures. Contrary to the death watch beetles the larvae don't expel wood dust from their burrows and the infestation often goes unnoticed. Depending on temperature, moisture and nutrition content, the larval development takes 4 to 10 years. The lower the nutrition content, the higher is the amount of wood consumed by the larva and they cause much damage in a short period of time. Therefore an infestation is reportable in some Federal States. In Germany, the species is everywhere present and is not endangered. (CB)

Priobium carpini (Hbst., 1793)
Priobium carpini
The 3 to 5 mm large death watch beetle Priobium carpini (family Anobiidae) is the only representative of the genus in Germany. The genus Priobium is known from the Palearctic, the Nearctic as well as the Neotropic and Australasian region. The distribution of Priobium carpini ranges from Eastern France and North Sweden to Asia minor and to the Caucasus. The eurytopic and mostly synanthropic species lives on wood yards and in houses, occasionally also in forests. It is strictly associated with wood infested by fungi. Hence it is not a primary pest but rather an indicator, that the wood is already damaged by fungal infection. Infested wood is completely pulverized and destroyed. After two years of larval development, the adult beetles appear from May to August and are probably nocturnal. In Germany the species is widespread and not endangered. (CB)

Cylindromorphus filum (Gyll., 1817)
Cylindromorphus filum
The 3.2 to 5 mm large jewel beetle Cylindromorphus filum (family Buprestidae) is the only representative of the genus in Germany. In total, the palearctic genus comprises 19 species, thereof 9 in Europe. Cylindromorphus filum is known to occur from Central Europe to Central Asia. The stenotopic, steppicolous species lives on xerothermic slopes, e.g. steppe heathland, fallow vineyards, calcareous grassland and sun-exposed slopes. The larva develops in various grasses (Graminaeceae), e.g. common meadow-grass (Poa pratensis). In Germany the species is recorded from a stripe across Central Germany from the Palatinate to Brandenburg. North and south of it there are no records. Cylindromorphus filum is not often recorded and is regarded as rare and endangered (RL 2). (CB)

Tarsostenus univittatus (Rossi, 1792)
Tarsostenus univittatus
The 4 to 5 mm large checkered beetle Tarsostenus univittatus (family Cleridae) is the only representative of the genus in Germany. The Australasian genus comprises two species worldwide. Today, Tarsostenus univittatus is a cosmopolitan (Europe, Caucasus, North and South Africa, North, Central and South America). In Germany, the species was first recorded in 1962 at the Kaiserstuhl. Since the 1990s it has spread and is now established in Southwest Germany (Baden-Württemberg, Palatinate, Hesse). The thermophilous species lives on dry wood, often on wood stacks, cuttings from pruned grapevines or synanthropic in carpenter's shops. Beetles and larvae prey on powderpost beetles (Lyctidae) and their larvae living on and in the wood. In Germany Tarsostenus univittatus is not endangered. (CB)

Lamprohiza splendidula (L., 1767)
Lamprohiza splendidula
The 8 to 10 mm large firefly Lamprohiza splendidula (family Lampyridae) is the only representative of the genus in Germany. In Europe, the genus comprises eight species. It is closely related to the holarctic genus Phausis, which may be paraphyletic. Lamprohiza splendidula is known to occur in Central and Southern Europe, from France to Russia, in the South to Greece. The eurytopic species lives on meadows, at the edges of forests and in gardens. The males swarm at dusk and glow. The females sitting in the grass respond to the males signals by glowing. After mating and oviposition the short-lived adults die soon of starvation. The larva is predaceous and feeds on small snails and slugs that are killed with a poisonous bite. The larval development takes 3 years. Lamprohiza splendidula is common throughout Germany and is not endangered. (CB)

Creophilus maxillosus (L., 1758)
Creophilus maxillosus
The 15 to 25 mm large hairy rove beetle Creophilus maxillosus (family Staphylinidae) is the only representative of the genus in Germany. Worldwide 13 Creophilus species have been described. Creophilus maxillosus is almost a cosmopolite, occurring in the entire Palearctic, large parts of North and Central America and parts of South America. The ubiquitous species lives in various habitats from forest to open land. Both beetles and their larvae prey on other insects and their larvae, mainly fly maggots. Hence they are usually found on carrion, dung, fungi and other decaying plant matter. The beetle has defensive abdominal glands, used to secrete a mixture of chemicals (main component dihydroneptalactone) that act as an irritant to predators. Creophilus maxillosus is widespread in Germany and everywhere common. (CB)

Silpha carinata Hbst., 1783
Silpha carinata
The 11 to 20 mm large carrion beetle Silpha carinata (family Silphidae) is one of four representatives of the genus in Germany. The palearctic genus comprises seven species in Europe. Silpha carinata can be distinguished from its similar sister species by the long, bell-shaped 8th article of the antenna and the lateral margin of the elytra which is broadened towards the shoulders. It is widespread in Europe, but is missing in the South (Spain, Greece, Mediterranean Isles). In the East it reaches Mongolia. The eurytopic species lives in various habitats, e.g. meadows, fallow land and clearings in forests. Both the beetles and their woodlouse-shaped larvae are usually found on carrion. In Germany it is recorded from virtually all Federal States, but is usually rare, only occasionally common. It is regarded as vulnerable (RL 3). (CB)

Hygrotus versicolor (Schall., 1783)
Hygrotus versicolor
The 3 to 3.5 mm large diving beetle Hygrotus versicolor (family Dytiscidae) is one of 4 representatives of the genus Hygrotus in Germany. The genus Hygrotus is of holarctic distribution and comprises approx. 70 species, thereof 40 in North America. It is closely related with genus Coelambus, which is regarded as subgenus of Hygrotus by some authors. Hygrotus versicolor is known to occur in North and Central Europe and reaches Transcaucasia and Siberia in the East. Towards the south it becomes rarer. The eurytopic species prefers lentic waters, e.g. oxbow lakes rich in vegetation, gravel pits and small meadow ponds. Both beetles and larvae prey on other water insects and small crustaceans. In Germany, Hygrotus versicolor has been recorded from all Federal States and is not regarded as endangered. (CB)

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