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Bledius talpa (Gyll., 1810)
Bledius talpa
The rove beetle Bledius talpa (family Staphylinidae) is one of the rarest representatives of the genus Bledius, which comprises more than 40 species in Germany. Recent records of Bledius talpa are only known from Württemberg. In Bavaria, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia the species is deemed to be lost or extinct (latest discoveries made before 1950); from all other Federal States of Germany there are no records at all. The stenotopic beetle prefers areas without any vegetation on sandy brooksides, riverbanks and lakeshores. On such locations the 4.5 to 5 mm large, black beetle with its shiny blue elytra can be observed occasionally, but most of the time the beetles hide in den sand during the day. In Germany, the species is regarded as endangered (RL 2). (KR)

Carabus irregularis F., 1792
Carabus irregularis
The distribution of the 19 to 30 mm large Ground beetle Carabus irregularis (family Carabidae) stretches across Central and Eastern Europe, and is limited to the low mountain and mountain range. In Germany the distribution reaches the Teutoburg forest and the Harz in the north. The species prefers moist beech forests on limestone. As a psychrophilic species, the beetles are mostly found on the northern slopes of the mountains, often together with Carabus auronitens, which prefers cold micro climate as well. During wintertime the beetle is found in its habitat in the winter quarters under thick, loose bark and in rotten wood of dead, lying trees, often gregarious. The nocturnal beetles are predaceous and feed on snails, worms and other insects. (KR)

Anthaxia candens (Panz., 1789)
Anthaxia candens
The distribution of the Jewel beetle Anthaxia candens (family Buprestidae) stretches from Spain, through Central and Southern Europe to the South Caucasus and Southern Russia. The beetle is missing in the Southeastern Mediterranean region and is substituted there by A. lucens. A. candens is mainly found in orchards with unkempt or overgrown, old trees of Sweet Cherry with a high percentage of deadwood. The development usually takes three years. In contrast to other Anthaxia species, A. candens never visit blooms, but swarms around the breeding trees. Due to their acrodendric lifestyle the beetles are rarely found and it is easier to verify the presence of the species by its typical burrows. The beetles exhibit a sexual dimorphism: The head and pronotum of the female is dark blue, but shiny green in the male. (KR)

Hypocaccus rugiceps (Duft., 1805)
Hypocaccus rugiceps
The distribution of the 3 to 4 mm large clown beetle Hypocaccus rugiceps (family Histeridae) ranges across Europe, the Caucasus to Siberia. In Central Europe the species is not generally regarded as rare, although e.g. in Germany recent records (after 1950) are missing from many regions. Recent rediscoveries of the species in several regions in Germany indicate that the lack of new records may be a simple matter of lacking research and/or documentation on the species. The beetles are found on sandy soil nearby waters, mostly along the major rivers and their accompanying lakes, and on the coast in the dunes and on the beaches. Here the beetles are found on carrion and feces, often in company with the very similar sister species Hypocaccus rugifrons. (KR/CB)

Ampedus elegantulus (Schönh., 1817)
Ampedus elegantulus
The distribution of the 8 to 10 mm large click beetle Ampedus elegantulus (family Elateridae) ranges from the Pyrenees through Southern and Central Europe to West Russia and Turkey. The species is very rare in Central Europe and is classified in the Red List of Germany as critically endangered (RL 1). The distinctive beetle exhibits a characteristic black coloration on the tips of the otherwise yellow elytra. The deadwood structures Ampedus elegantulus requires for its development have become increasingly rare in our "tidy" landscape. The larvae develop in red rotted wood of tree hollows, occasionally also in very wet, white rotted wood of willow (Salix), oak, poplar and spruce. They are predaceous and feed on other insect larvae. (KR/CB)

Cordicomus sellatus (Panz., 1797)
Cordicomus sellatus
The distribution of the 4 mm large Cordicomus sellatus (family Anthicidae) spreads from Northern to Central Europe. Especially in the East the species is widespread and common, at least locally. From Germany there are records from virtually all regions (except Wurttemberg and Saarland), however quite a few of them are only historic. In the Red List of Germany the species is classified as endangered. The beetles can be found on sandy edges of ponds and rivers under vegetable detritus and in the sandy ground below plants. They should be present alongside river Rhine, wherever sandy watersides exist. However, such spots are missing in the narrow Rhine valley in Rhineland-Palatinate, which may be the reason for the lack of recent records of the beetle in this region. (KR)

Amphotis marginata (F., 1781)
Amphotis marginata
The myrmecophilous sap beetle Amphotis marginata (family Nitidulidae) lives as a true host in the vicinity of the nests of the Jet ant, also known as Shiny wood ant (Lasius fuliginosus). They lead an inconspicuous lifestyle lurking at the ant trails for foraging worker ants and use tactile cues to solicit regurgitation of a liquid food drop. When the trick is found out, the beetle withdraws into its carapace and attaches itself to the ground, becoming invulnerable to attack. The development cycle of the 4 to 4.5 mm large species is yet unknown. It is believed, that it takes places in plant galls. Amphotis marginata is known to occur all over Germany and is not endangered. Due to its hidden lifestyle the beetle is found comparatively seldom. (KR)

Brachytarsus fasciatus (Forst., 1771)
Brachytarsus fasciatus
The 2 to 4 mm large fungus weevil Brachytarsus fasciatus (family Anthribidae) is one of three species of the genus known to occur in Germany. The beetles hibernate and appear already in early spring, but usually from May to June on deciduous trees that are infested by scale insects (family Coccidae). The larvae live under the cavity beneath an individual host scale of the genus Eulecanium or Pulvinaria and are dependent on the eggs found there for food, later they feed on the scale insect itself. Brachytarsus fasciatus is a relatively rare species that is missing or has disappeared in many Federal States in Germany. This is why it is classified in the Red List of Germany as vulnerable (RL 3). The reason for the rarity of the species is not understood up to now. (KR)

Rhyzopertha dominica (F., 1792)
Rhyzopertha dominica
The origin of the 2 to 3 mm large Lesser Grain Borer Rhyzopertha dominica (family Bostrichidae) is traced to the (sub-) tropical regions of Southeast Asia. Today it is impossible to identify the exact origin, but it is probably India, China and Indochina. The beetles were transported all over the world with food shipments. It is now a cosmopolitan and one of the most dangerous pests to food supplies. Both adult beetles and larvae attack vegetable matter rich in protein, oil or starch, e.g. grains, rice, sorghum, oil seeds and others, in which the larvae develop. But since their origin is in the tropical region, beetle and larvae do not tolerate low temperatures and die off quickly below 10 °C. Therefore, the beetle is obligate synanthropic in Central Europe. (KR/CB)

Callistus lunatus (F., 1775)
Callistus lunatus
The distribution of the 4.2 to 7 mm large Ground Beetle Callistus lunatus (family Carabidae) stretches from Northern Spain, through Central Europe (South England, South Holland, East Germany), to South-Central Latvia and Russia, and Turkmenistan in the east. In the south it reaches the Mediterranean region without the islands. The beetle is markedly thermophilic and nowhere common. It usually prefers limestone soil, but is occasionally also reported from sandy soil. In Germany it is mostly found in the low mountain range, especially on xerothermic southern slopes, sparsely covered with vegetation. Normally one can find the beetle under stones and wood or crawling on the ground in dry and sunny weather. In the Red List of Germany C. lunatus is classified as endangered (RL 2). (KR)

Pachnephorus pilosus (Rossi, 1790)
Pachnephorus pilosus
The distribution of the 2.5 to 3.5 mm large leaf beetle Pachnephorus pilosus (family Chrysomelidae) spreads from Southern Europe to Central Europe. The genus Pachnephorus is represented in Southern Europe by about two dozen species, whereas in Germany only two species are present. Pachnephorus pilosus is significantly more common than the other species, and is known to occur all over Germany except the northern Federal States, but very localized and rare. The terricolous beetles live in open, sunny locations on muddy-loamy, sandy soil, often near ditches and other moist habitats under lower plants. They graze on sparse moss floors thriving on the moist, loamy-sandy soil. In the Red List of Germany the species is classified as endangered (RL 2). (KR/CB)

Rhynchaenus alni (L., 1758)
Rhynchaenus alni
The 2.5 to 3.5 mm large weevil Rhynchaenus alni (family Curculionidae) is one of the so called leaf mining or jumping weevils. These weevils have thickened hind legs that enable them to make - relative to their size - huge jumps, similar to the leaf beetles of the subfamily Halticinae. The distribution of Rhynchaenus alni spreads in the north from Denmark to Southern Europe and in the East to East Asia. In Germany, there are records from virtually all regions (except Mecklenburg- Western-Pomerania), but many of them are only historical. Contrary to their scientific name the species is not living on alder (Alnus sp.), but oligophagous on elm tree (Ulmus sp.), often together with the reddish Rhynchaenus rufus. In Germany, the species is regarded as vulnerable (RL 3). (KR)

Plagionotus detritus (L., 1758)
Plagionotus detritus
The 10 to 19 mm large longhorn beetle Plagionotus detritus (family Cerambycidae) mimics the appearance of stinging wasps - similar to longhorn beetles of the genus Leptura, Clytus and Xylotrechus as well as insects from other orders (e.g. hoverflies, clearwing moths). This is called Batesian mimicry. Its distribution stretches from Southern and Central Europe to the Caucasus, Northern Kazakhstan and the Middle East. The larval development takes 1-2 years in stems and thick branches of various deciduous trees, in Central Europe preferably in oak (Quercus), but also hornbeam (Carpinus), beech (Fagus), chestnut (Castanea). The beetles can be found on the side and at the bottom of fresh timber logs lying in the sun. In Germany the species is regarded as endangered (RL 2). (KR/CB)

Dermestoides sanguinicollis (F., 1787)
Dermestoides sanguinicollis
The Checkered Beetle Dermestoides sanguinicollis is the rarest representative of the family Cleridae in Central Europe. The distribution of the 7 to 9 mm large beetle reaches from Southern Europe (Pyrenees) across Central Europe to Western Russia and the Caucasus. The northernmost distribution limit passes through the middle of Germany. Dermestoides sanguinicollis is bound to old oaks and especially to trees populated by the great capricorn beetle (Cerambyx cerdo). Even at the beginning of the 20th century D. sanguinicollis was already rare. In those days, the great capricorn beetle was regarded as a forest pest and its brood trees were eliminated, resulting in a massive decline of habitats. Today the species is considered as critically endangered in Germany (RL 1). (KR)

Necrophorus vespillo (L., 1758)
Necrophorus vespillo
The Banded Sexton Beetle Necrophorus vespillo (family Silphidae) is one of at least ten species in Central Europe. The species of the genus Necrophorus are commonly referred to as "burying beetles". The Banded Sexton Beetle is present throughout Central Europe. It is mostly found on carrion, where the beetles prey on fly maggots and other insects and their larvae. Small carrion is usually buried quickly by the beetles. For non-eusocial insects, the beetles exhibit a very remarkable brood care behavior: The female protects its larvae in the crypt and feeds them actively with the decaying carrion. The beetles are usually occupied by a large number of mites, which don't harm the beetle. The mites simply use it as a vehicle to move on to the next carrion (phoresy). (KR/CB)

Lacon querceus (Hbst., 1784)
Lacon querceus
The distribution of the Click beetle Lacon querceus (family Elateridae) stretches from the Pyrenees across Central Europe to Western Siberia. In Central Europe, the occurrences of the 9-12 mm large species are very insular and localized and the beetle is rare everywhere. In the mountains it rises to a maximum of 470 m above sea level. The development of the larvae takes place in rotten trunks and thick branches of standing oak infested with the mycelium of sulphur shelf (Laetiporus sulphureus). The larvae possibly prey on the larvae of Mycetophagus piceus. In late autumn the beetles hatch and hibernate in the puparium. In Germany Lacon querceus is confined to very few old oak forests and is regarded as critically endangered (RL 1). (KR/CB)

Batrisodes buqueti (Aube, 1833)
Batrisodes buqueti
Batrisodes buqueti is one of approximately 90 representatives of short-winged mold beetles (family Pselaphidae), which is placed as subfamily of the rove beetles (Staphylinidae) by some authors. Its members are characterized by their conspicuous maxillary palps. Due to their hidden lifestyle associated with ants of the genus Lasius, but also under bark and in dead wood it is quite difficult to find the beetles. The distribution of Batrisodes buqueti stretches from Southern Europe to Central Europe. In Germany occurrences of the 1.9 to 2.2 mm large species are rather localized. Their abundance strongly decreases from the South to the North and from the West to the East. In the German Red List of endangered species B. buqueti is regarded as endangered (RL 2). (KR)

Harpalus flavescens (Pill.Mitt., 1783)
Harpalus flavescens
The distribution of the Ground Beetle Harpalus flavescens (family Carabidae) spreads from Central Europe to Southern Russia in the east. In the north it reaches South Sweden and Southern Finland, in the south Northern Italy. Obviously, the species is currently not present in the Alps (last time reported in 1990 from Switzerland, no records from Austria). The 11 to 13 mm large, psammophilic beetle is extremely thermophilic and occurs on sandy areas sparsely covered with vegetation. Therefore the beetle can be regarded as a typical element of heaths. In the large sandy areas in Eastern Germany the species is still very common, otherwise generally rare, but currently reported from almost all Federal States. In Germany, Harpalus flavescens is classified as vulnerable (RL 3). (KR)

Laemophloeus monilis (F., 1787)
Laemophloeus monilis
The Lined Flat Bark Beetle Laemophloeus monilis (family Laemophloeidae) is present in most parts of Germany. It is absent in the Saarland and in the regions of Weser-Ems and Lower Elbe. There are only old reports from Thuringia, Hannover and Schleswig-Holstein. The species is rare in the northern parts of Germany, and, although it is somewhat more common in the southern parts, a clear loss in habitats is observed. Both beetles and larvae live under the bark of deciduous trees, especially of beech (Fagus), less frequently of linden (Tilia). Beetles and larvae presumably prey on the bark beetle Taphrorychus bicolor (family Scolytidae), hunting its larvae in their burrows. In the Red List of Germany L. monilis is classified as vulnerable (RL 3). (KR/CB)

Lasiorhynchites sericeus (Hbst., 1797)
Lasiorhynchites sericeus
The distribution of the Thief Weevil Lasiorhynchites sericeus (family Rhynchitidae) stretches over all of Europe except the north. In the east it reaches far into Russia. The 5.2 to 6.4 mm large species is known to occur throughout Germany, but everywhere only very sporadically. The beetles live from May till July on oak. They exhibit a very interesting brood parasitism: Contrary to other representatives of the genus, the female does not produce a leaf-roll herself, but places her egg in the leaf-roll of the Leaf-rolling Weevil Attelabus nitens while still "under construction". Also, the females lay their eggs in already finished rolls. The larva eats the egg of the Leaf-rolling Weevil before it consumes the leaf as the brood substrate. (KR/CB)

Timarcha metallica (Laich., 1781)
Timarcha metallica
The leaf beetle Timarcha metallica (family Chrysomelidae) is one of three representatives of the genus in Germany. Its distribution stretches from Central Europe and the south-easternmost France and northernmost Italy to the east far into Russia. It is a stenotopic, montane species, which is only found in the low mountain and the high mountain ranges. There are recent records from all mountain areas of Germany and the species is only missing on the coast and in large parts of East Germany. The 5 to 10 mm large beetle and its larvae are oligophagous and live on Bedstraw (Galium) species. The beetle hibernates and can be found in the winter quarter or very early in spring, but only very sporadically. (KR/CB)

Trox scaber (L., 1767)
Trox scaber
The hide beetle Trox scaber is one of seven species of the family Trogidae in Germany. Formerly, the family Trogidae was placed as subfamily Troginae of the scarab beetles (Scarabaeidae). The 5 to 8 mm large beetles can be found in bird nests (nidicolous), where also the development cycle takes place. They may be found in wood detritus in large hollow tree-trunks, which were inhabited by breeding birds. Occasionally, the crepuscular and nocturnal species can be observed at night outside the tree hollow on the trunk. Trox scaber is virtually of cosmopolitan distribution and occurs from the plain to the mountain range, preferably at lower altitudes and hence is e.g. rarely found in the Alps. As the most common species of the genus T. scaber is not endangered in Germany. (KR)

Hololepta plana (Sulzer, 1776)
Hololepta plana
With a size of 8 to 9 mm the Hister beetle Hololepta plana belongs already to the larger species of the Hister beetles (family Histeridae). The species is present in almost all over Central Europe, and only lacking in the northernmost areas. In Germany it is widespread, but nowhere common. The beetles prefer river meadows and alluvial forests as habitat. Due to their extremely flattened body shape they are perfectly adapted to a life under the loose bark and layers of bast of dead, lying poplar trunks (Populus). A sufficient level of moisture under the bark seems to play a more important role than warm temperatures. Under the bark the beetles and their larvae prey on the larvae and pupae of various fly species (order Diptera). (KR/CB)

Pelenomus velaris (Gyll., 1827)
Pelenomus velaris
The weevil Pelenomus velaris (family Curculionidae) is widespread in Europe, but locally rather rare or even absent, most notably in the southern and southeastern parts. In Germany, the occurrences of the 2.4 to 2.8 mm large species are isolated and insular. Recent records have been reported from the regions of Bavaria, North Rhine, the Lower Elbe region, Schleswig-Holstein, Brandenburg, Thuringia and Saxony. The beetles can be found during spring in the mud of former flooded areas on the sprouts of their host plant, Water Smartweed (Polygonum amphibium). At this stage P. amphibium just starts growing and is difficult to determine precisely. In the Red List of Germany Pelenomus velaris is classified as endangered (RL 3). (KR/CB)

Buprestis octoguttata L., 1758
Buprestis octoguttata
The distribution of the Jewel beetle Buprestis octoguttata (family Buprestidae) stretches from North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula across Central Europe (the region of Atlantic climate being avoided) to Southern Russia. In Germany, the 9 to 15 mm large beetle is more common in the eastern parts than in the west. In the West its distribution is only insular. Sandy pine forests and pine heathland are the preferred habitat. The larvae develop primarily in pine (Pinus), less frequently in other pinewood, preferably in sun-exposed deadwood and stumps. Depending on the climate the larvae complete their development cycle in two to three years. From May to August (September), the beetles can be observed in the midday heat on sun-exposed deadwood. (KR)

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